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  • 1
    Abstract: AIM OF THE STUDY: A vast majority of human malignancies are associated with ageing, and age is a strong predictor of cancer risk. Recently, DNA methylation-based marker of ageing, known as 'epigenetic clock', has been linked with cancer risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate whether the epigenetic clock is associated with breast cancer risk susceptibility and to identify potential epigenetics-based biomarkers for risk stratification. METHODS: Here, we profiled DNA methylation changes in a nested case-control study embedded in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (n = 960) using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip arrays and used the Horvath age estimation method to calculate epigenetic age for these samples. Intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA) was estimated as the residuals by regressing epigenetic age on chronological age. RESULTS: We observed an association between IEAA and breast cancer risk (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.007-1.076, P = 0.016). One unit increase in IEAA was associated with a 4% increased odds of developing breast cancer (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.007-1.076). Stratified analysis based on menopausal status revealed that IEAA was associated with development of postmenopausal breast cancers (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.020-1.11, P = 0.003). In addition, methylome-wide analyses revealed that a higher mean DNA methylation at cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) islands was associated with increased risk of breast cancer development (OR per 1 SD = 1.20; 95 %CI: 1.03-1.40, P = 0.02) whereas mean methylation levels at non-island CpGs were indistinguishable between cancer cases and controls. CONCLUSION: Epigenetic age acceleration and CpG island methylation have a weak, but statistically significant, association with breast cancer susceptibility.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28259012
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  • 2
    Keywords: EXPOSURE ; BIOMARKERS ; BREAST ; HUMANS ; smoking ; VALIDITY ; ENDOMETRIAL ; HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS ; glycidamide
    Abstract: Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as 'probably carcinogenic' to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results, and could not further examine histological subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) sub-cohort of women (n=325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method, and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10microg/day) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histological EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 mug/day. No associations, and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10microg/day:1.02, 95%CI:0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1:0.97, 95%CI:0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25300475
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  • 3
    Abstract: Diets high in red or processed meat have been associated positively with some cancers, and several possible underlying mechanisms have been proposed, including iron-related pathways. However, the role of meat intake in adult glioma risk has yielded conflicting findings because of small sample sizes and heterogeneous tumour classifications. The aim of this study was to examine red meat, processed meat and iron intake in relation to glioma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. In this prospective cohort study, 408 751 individuals from nine European countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine intake of red meat, processed meat, total dietary iron and haem iron in relation to incident glioma. During an average follow-up of 14.1 years, 688 incident glioma cases were diagnosed. There was no evidence that any of the meat variables (red, processed meat or subtypes of meat) or iron (total or haem) were associated with glioma; results were unchanged when the first 2 years of follow-up were excluded. This study suggests that there is no association between meat or iron intake and adult glioma. This is the largest prospective analysis of meat and iron in relation to glioma and as such provides a substantial contribution to a limited and inconsistent literature.
    Type of Publication: Journal article epub ahead of print
    PubMed ID: 27845960
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  • 4
    Abstract: PURPOSE: There is inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between higher intake of nuts, being an energy-dense food, and weight gain. We investigated the relationship between nut intake and changes in weight over 5 years. METHODS: This study includes 373,293 men and women, 25-70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 from 10 European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Habitual intake of nuts including peanuts, together defined as nut intake, was estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The association between nut intake and body weight change was estimated using multilevel mixed linear regression models with center/country as random effect and nut intake and relevant confounders as fixed effects. The relative risk (RR) of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years was investigated using multivariate Poisson regressions stratified according to baseline body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: On average, study participants gained 2.1 kg (SD 5.0 kg) over 5 years. Compared to non-consumers, subjects in the highest quartile of nut intake had less weight gain over 5 years (-0.07 kg; 95% CI -0.12 to -0.02) (P trend = 0.025) and had 5% lower risk of becoming overweight (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98) or obese (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.99) (both P trend 〈0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of nuts is associated with reduced weight gain and a lower risk of becoming overweight or obese.
    Type of Publication: Journal article epub ahead of print
    PubMed ID: 28733927
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  • 5
    Abstract: Polyphenols have been shown to exert biological activity in experimental models of colon cancer; however, human data linking specific polyphenols to colon cancer is limited. We assessed the relationship between pre-diagnostic plasma polyphenols and colon cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, we measured concentrations of 35 polyphenols in plasma from 809 incident colon cancer cases and 809 matched controls. We used multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression models that included established colon cancer risk factors. The false discovery rate (qvalues ) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. All statistical tests were two-sided. After false discovery rate correction and in continuous log2 -transformed multivariable models, equol (odds ratio [OR] per log2 -value, 0.86, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=0.79-0.93; qvalue =0.01) and homovanillic acid (OR per log2 -value, 1.46, 95%CI=1.16-1.84; qvalue =0.02) were associated with colon cancer risk. Comparing extreme fifths, equol concentrations were inversely associated with colon cancer risk (OR=0.61, 95%CI=0.41-0.91, ptrend =0.003), while homovanillic acid concentrations were positively associated with colon cancer development (OR=1.72, 95%CI=1.17-2.53, ptrend 〈0.0001). No heterogeneity for these associations was observed by sex and across other colon cancer risk factors. The remaining polyphenols were not associated with colon cancer risk. Higher equol concentrations were associated with lower risk, and higher homovanillic acid concentrations were associated with greater risk, of colon cancer. These findings support a potential role for specific polyphenols in colon tumorigenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Type of Publication: Journal article epub ahead of print
    PubMed ID: 29696648
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  • 6
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; proliferation ; tumor ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; PATHWAY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; TUMORS ; RELEASE ; PATIENT ; BINDING ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; case-control studies ; SOMATOSTATIN ; CANCER PATIENTS ; nutrition ; FACTOR-I ; BINDING PROTEIN ; SERUM ; SINGLE ; IGF-I ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; cell proliferation ; development ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; BINDING PROTEIN-3 ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; GENOTYPE DATA ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; IGFBP3 ; insulin-like growth factor ; PLASMA-LEVELS ; SERUM-LEVELS
    Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates cell proliferation and can enhance the development of tumors in different organs. Epidemiologic studies have shown that an elevated level of circulating IGF-I is associated to increased risk of breast cancer as well as other cancers. Genetic variants affecting the release or biological action of growth hormone (GH), the main stimulator of IGF-I production, may predict circulating levels of IGF-I and have an effect on cancer risk. We tested this hypothesis with a large case-control study of 807 breast cancer patients and 1,588 matched control subjects nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We genotyped 22 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 genes involved in GH production and action (GHRH, GHRHR, SST, SSTR1-SSTR5, POU1F1, and GH1), and in parallel, we measured serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, its major binding protein, in samples of cases and controls. SST and SSTR2 polymorphisms showed weak but statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. SSTR5 polymorphisms were associated with IGF-I levels, whereas one polymorphism in GHRHR and one in POU1F1 were associated with IGFBP-3 levels. Our conclusion is that common genetic variation in the GH synthesis pathway, as measured by single nucleotide polymorphisms selected in the present study, is not a major determinant of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 circulating levels, and it does not play a major role in altering breast cancer risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16214911
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; EMPHYSEMA ; FOLLOW-UP ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; NETWORKS ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; DNA adducts ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENES ; TIME ; DNA ; AIR-POLLUTION ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; AGE ; REPAIR ; smoking ; leukemia ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; cancer risk ; DAMAGE ; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS ; DNA-DAMAGE ; RECRUITMENT ; ADDUCTS ; case-control studies ; EPIC ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; WHITE BLOOD-CELLS ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; case-control study ; DETERMINANTS ; monitoring ; GSTM1 ; LEVEL ; ADDUCT ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; DNA damage ; DNA ADDUCT ; ABILITY ; GENDER ; OUTDOOR AIR-POLLUTION ; OZONE
    Abstract: Objectives were to investigate prospectively the ability of DNA adducts to predict cancer and to study the determinants of adducts, especially air pollutants. DNA adducts were measured in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC investigation. Cases included newly diagnosed lung cancer (n = 115), upper respiratory cancers (pharynx and larynx, n 82), bladder cancer (n = 124), leukemia (n = 166), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema deaths (n = 77) accrued after a median follow-up of 7 years among the EPIC former smokers and never-smokers. Three controls per case were matched for questionnaire analyses and two controls per case for laboratory analyses. Matching criteria were gender, age, smoking status, country of recruitment, and follow-up time. Individual exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentration data from monitoring stations in routine air quality monitoring networks. Leukocyte DNA adducts were analyzed blindly using (32)p postlabeling technique. Adducts were associated with the subsequent risk of lung cancer, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.86 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.88-3.931 when comparing detectable versus nondetectable adducts. The association with lung cancer was stronger in never-smokers (OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.06-15.42) and among the younger age groups. After exclusion of the cancers occurring in the first 36 months of follow-up, the OR was 4.16 (95% CI, 1.24-13.88). A positive association was found between DNA adducts and ozone (O-3) concentration. Our prospective study suggests that leukocyte DNA adducts may predict lung cancer risk of never-smokers. Besides, the association of DNA adduct levels with O-3 indicates a possible role for photochemical smog in determining DNA damage
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16140979
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; NITRIC-OXIDE ; INFECTION ; ASSOCIATION ; antibodies ; antibody ; PLASMA ; NUMBER ; cancer risk ; DIETARY ; INDIVIDUALS ; CARDIA ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; HELICOBACTER-PYLORI ; nutrition ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; INCREASE ; IRON ; LEVEL ; prospective ; MEAT INTAKE ; RED MEAT ; CANCER-RISK ; Helicobacter pylori ; N-NITROSO COMPOUNDS ; HEME ; processed meat
    Abstract: The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and endogenous formation of nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study included 521 457 individuals and 314 incident cases of GC that had occurred after 6.6 average years of follow-up. An index of endogenous NOC (ENOC) formation was estimated using data of the iron content from meat intake and faecal apparent total NOC formation according to previous published studies. Antibodies to Helicobacter pylori and vitamin C levels were measured in a sub-sample of cases and matched controls included in a nested case-control within the cohort. Exposure to NDMA was 〈 1 mu g on average compared with 93 mu g on average from ENOC. There was no association between NDMA intake and GC risk (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.7-1.43). ENOC was significantly associated with non-cardia cancer risk (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.14-1.78 for an increase of 40 mu g/day) but not with cardia cancer (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.69-1.33). Although the number of not infected cases is low, our data suggest a possible interaction between ENOC and H.pylori infection (P for interaction = 0.09). Moreover, we observed an interaction between plasma vitamin C and ENOC (P 〈 0.02). ENOC formation may account for our previously reported association between red and processed meat consumption and gastric cancer risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16571648
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; LUNG ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; COHORT ; cohort study ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; EXPOSURE ; MORTALITY ; occupation ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; REDUCTION ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; HUMANS ; WOMEN ; MEN ; risk factors ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; cancer risk ; POPULATIONS ; DIET ; VALIDITY ; EPIC ; nutrition ; SMOKERS ; RELATIVE RISK ; exercise ; physical activity ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; INTERVAL ; SUBTYPES ; prospective ; UNIT ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; sports ; occupations ; ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE
    Abstract: Research conducted predominantly in male populations on physical activity and lung cancer has yielded inconsistent results. We examined this relationship among 416,277 men and women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Detailed information on recent recreational, household and occupational physical activity, smoking habits and diet was assessed at baseline between 1992 and 2000. Relative risks (RR) were estimated using Cox regression. During 6.3 years of follow-up we identified 607 men and 476 women with incident lung cancer. We did not observe an inverse association between recent occupational, recreational or household physical activity and lung cancer risk in either males or females. However, we found some reduction in lung cancer risk associated with sports in males (adjusted RR = 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.50-0.98; highest tertile vs. inactive group), cycling (RR = 0.73; 0.54-0.99) in females and non-occupational vigorous physical activity. For occupational physical activity, lung cancer risk was increased for unemployed men (adjusted RR = 1.57; 1.20-2.05) and men with standing occupations (RR = 1.35; 1.02-1.79) compared with sitting professions. There was no evidence of heterogeneity of physical activity associations across countries, or across any of the considered cofactors. For some histologic subtypes suggestive sex-specific reductions, limited by subgroup sizes, were observed, especially with vigorous physical activity. In total, our study shows no consistent protective associations of physical activity with lung cancer risk. It can be assumed that the elevated risks found for occupational physical activity are not produced mechanistically by physical activity itself but rather reflect exposure to occupation-related lung cancer risk factors. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16894558
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; INFECTION ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; REDUCED RISK ; risk factors ; cancer risk ; RECRUITMENT ; DIET ; STOMACH ; adenocarcinoma ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; ALCOHOL ; CARDIA ; EPIC ; ESOPHAGUS ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; HELICOBACTER-PYLORI ; nutrition ; STOMACH-CANCER ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; DIGESTIVE-TRACT ; gastric cancer ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; methods ; PROFILES ; prospective ; EVALUATE ; odds ratio ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; Helicobacter pylori ; cardia cancer ; socioeconomic position
    Abstract: Objectives To evaluate the association of socioeconomic position with adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and stomach. Methods The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort comprises about 520000 participants mostly aged 35-70 years. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at recruitment. After an average follow-up of 6.5 years, 268 cases with adenocarcinoma of the stomach and 56 of the oesophagus were confirmed. We examined the effect of socioeconomic position on cancer risk by means of educational data and a computed Relative Index of Inequality (RII). In a nested case-control study, adjustment for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was performed. Results Higher education was significantly associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer [vs lowest level of education, hazard ratio (HR): 0.64, 95% Confidence intervals (CI): 0.43-0.981. This effect was more pronounced for cancer of the cardia (HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.89) as compared to non-cardia gastric cancer (HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.36-1.22). Additionally, the inverse association of educational level and gastric cancer was stronger for cases with intestinal (extreme categories, HR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04-0.44) rather than diffuse histological subtype (extreme categories, HR: 0.71 95% CI: 0.37-1.40). In the nested case-control study, inverse but statistically non-significant associations were found after additional adjustment for H. pylori infection [highest vs lowest level of education: Odds ratio (OR) 0.53, 95% CI: 0.24-1.18]. Educational level was non-significantly, inversely associated with carcinoma of the oesophagus. Conclusion A higher socioeconomic position was associated with a reduced risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, which was strongest for cardia cancer or intestinal histological subtype, suggesting different risk profiles according to educational level. These effects appear to be explained only partially by established risk factors
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17227779
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