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  • 1
    ISSN: 0167-4838
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Keywords: Chitin synthetase ; Chitosome dissociation ; Digitonin
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Vigorous agitation caused the zoospores of Phytophthora palmivora to undergo rapid synchronous encystment. The rate of encystment was determined by counting the number of cells with an alkali-resistant cyst wall. 50% of the zoospores formed an alkali-resistant cyst wall within 60 sec of agitation; after 120 sec, essentially all zoospores had encysted. The rate of spontaneous encystment in nonagitated suspensions was much slower. The flagella of nearly all zoospores disappeared within 30 sec of agitation, i.e. prior to the formation of an alkali-resistant cyst wall. Zoospores depend on internal reserves for synthesizing their cyst walls. Approximately 70% of the total carbohydrate in motile zoospores was extracted with water after treating the cells with 70% éthnol. During synchronous encystment, this carbohydrate fraction composed largely of glucans decreased markedly while the insoluble carbohydrate fraction (cyst wall glucan) increased correspondingly. Clearly, the conversion of cytoplasmic glucan into wall glucan plays a major role in zoospore encystment.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Walls from cysts, hyphae and sporangia of Phytophthora palmivora consist chiefly (ca. 90% dry wt) of β-glucans with 1,3-, 1,4- and 1,6-links. The glucans are predominatly β-1,3-linked but there are significant differences in the relative proportion of 1,3-, 1,6- and 1,4-linked glucosyl residues among the three wall types. There are also differences in protein content, susceptibility to degradation by various β-glucanases, and surface texture. The isolated cyst wall consists solely of a thin fabric of long, tightly interwoven, randomly oriented microfibrils. Both inner and outer surfaces of the cyst wall are distinctly microfibrillar. The hyphal wall has two different textures; the internal surface is distinctly microfibrillar while the external surface is non-fibrillar. In a germinated cyst, there is a zone of demarcation where the microfibrils of the cyst wall disappear into the smooth outer texture of the germ tube wall. An exo-β-1,3-glucanase preferentially removed the amorphous material of the outer surface of the germ tube leaving exposed a continuous microfibrillar fabric from cyst to hyphal tube. Conceivably, the textural and structural differentiation of the cell wall may play a decisive role in cellular morphogenesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (carbon replicas) confirm the existence of a deep longitudinal groove on one side of the pyriform body of the zoospores of Phytophthora palmivora. Upon encystment the cell rounds off but the groove may be temporarily retained as a depression on the cyst surface. The carbon replicas revealed significant differences in outer surface texture: the zoospore surface is finely granular whereas the outer surface of both young and mature cysts are distinctly microfibrillar with only occasional patches of amorphous material.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The fine structure of ungerminated and aerobically germinated sporangiospores of Mucor rouxii was compared. The germination process may be divided into two stages: I, spherical growth; II, emergence of a germ tube. In both stages, germination is growth in its strictest sense with overall increases in cell organelles; e.g., the increase in mitochondria is commensurate with the overall increase in protoplasmic mass. Noticeable changes occurring during germination are the disappearance of electron-dense lipoid bodies, formation of a large central vacuole and, most strikingly, formation of a new cell wall. Unlike many other fungi, M. rouxii does not germinate by converting the spore wall into a vegetative wall. Instead, as in other Mucorales, a vegetative wall is formed de novo under the spore wall during germination stage I. This new wall grows out, rupturing the spore wall, to become the germ tube wall. Associated with the apical wall of the germ tube is an apical corpuscle previously described. The vegetative wall exhibits a nonlayered, uniformly microfibrillar appearance in marked distinction to the spore wall which is triple-layered, with two thin electron dense outer layers, and a thick transparent inner stratum. The lack of continuity between the spore and vegetative walls is correlated with marked differences in wall chemistry previously reported. A separate new wall is also formed under the spore wall during anaerobic germination leading to yeast cell formation. On the other hand, in the development of one vegetative cell from another, such as in the formation of hyphae from yeast cells, the cell wall is structurally continuous. This continuity is correlated with a similarity in chemical composition of the cell wall reported earlier.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words:Mucor rouxii– Microtubules – F-actin – Spore germination – Immunofluorescence – Sporangiospores – Tip growth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The distribution of F-actin microfilaments and microtubules was analyzed in germinating sporangiospores of Mucor rouxii by labeling with rhodamine-tagged phalloidin and by immunofluorescence microscopy. The transition from isodiametrical to apical growth was accompanied by a switch from uniform distribution of F-actin patches to a polarized accumulation of F-actin material at the germ tube tips. Immunoblotting of cell-free extracts of M. rouxii with a monoclonal anti-porcine α-tubulin antibody (TU-01) disclosed two discrete bands of α-tubulin suggesting the existence of two α-tubulin genes in this fungus. Immunofluorescence microscopy of germinating cells stained with the same antibody revealed an elaborate network of cytoplasmic microtubules that persisted during the entire germination process and extended into the apex of the germ tube. Although their precise roles remain undetermined, the observed arrangement of cytoskeletal elements during germination is consistent with their presumed involvement in cell wall morphogenesis: the long axial microtubules serving as long-distance conveyors of wall-building vesicles to the apical region while the concentrated F-actin patches mark the participation of microfilaments in the zone of intense vesicle exocytosis at the hyphal apex.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Abscission ; Budding ; Cytology ; Septation ; Mucor ; Ontogeny ; Wall ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The budding process of the yeast form of Mucor rouxii was examined by electron microscopy of thin sections with particular reference to wall ontogeny. In most instances the bud wall is seen as a continuation of the inner layers of the parent cell wall. As the bud emerges it ruptures the outer layers of the parent wall. The bud wall is much thinner than the parent wall and remains so while the bud grows into a sphere of about one half the diameter of the parent cell. Then a septum begins to form centripetally, at the neck, by invagination of the plasmalemma. Before the neck canal is completely occuluded, electron-dense wall material is deposited into the septum space. Two separate septum walls are deposited, one on the parent side and one on the bud side of the invaginating plasmalemma. Septum wall formation extends to the surrounding neck walls. In this manner, the parent and bud cytoplasms become fully separated and each is surrounded by a continuous wall. The two cells remain attached to each other by the original neck wall; eventually, the bud abscisses leaving a birth scar on the bud cell and a more pronounced bud scar on the parent cell. In general, the mechanism of budding in this zygomycetous fungus resembles that of an ordinary ascomycetous yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
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