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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; INFORMATION ; EXPOSURE ; NEW-YORK ; RISK ; ENZYMES ; GENE ; GENES ; SAMPLE ; METABOLISM ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; DIFFERENCE ; smoking ; DATABASE ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; INDIVIDUALS ; BEHAVIOR ; CONSUMPTION ; SMOKERS ; SUBSET ; NICOTINE METABOLISM ; pooled analysis,molecular epidemiology,smoking ; SMOKING-BEHAVIOR
    Abstract: Polymorphisms in genes that encode for metabolic enzymes have been associated with variations in enzyme activity between individuals. Such variations could be associated with differences in individual exposure to carcinogens that are metabolized by these genes. In this study, we examine the association between polymorphisms in several metabolic genes and the consumption of tobacco in a large sample of healthy individuals. The database of the International Collaborative Study on Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens was used. All the individuals who were controls from the case-control studies included in the data set with information on smoking habits and on genetic polymorphisms were selected (n = 20,938). Sufficient information was available on the following genes that are involved in the metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents: CYPIAI, GSTMI, GSTTI, NAT2 and GSTPI. None of the tested genes was clearly associated with smoking behavior. Information on smoking dose, available for a subset of subjects, showed no effect of metabolic gene polymorphisms on the amount of smoking. No association between polymorphisms in the genes studied and tobacco consumption was observed; therefore, no effect of these genes on smoking behavior should be expected. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15069692
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Cytochrome P450 ; Systemic lupus erythematosus ; Debrisoquine and genetic polymorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: To determine whether patients with idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are associated with impaired CYP2D6 activity and to gain insight into whether there is an association between particular CYP2D6 genotypes and susceptibility to SLE, and whether CYP2D6 polymorphism is linked to any specific clinical features of SLE. Methods: Debrisoquine sulfate (10 mg p.o.) was given to 159 healthy volunteers and 39 idiopathic SLE patients. Genotypic assay was carried out in 80 healthy volunteers and 32 patients. A 10-ml blood sample was drawn for genotypic assay. Debrisoquine and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine were determined in 8-h urine samples. Blood samples were analysed for the presence of mutations in the CYP2D6 gene, by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for CYP2D6*3 and CYP2D6*4 alleles. Results: The metabolic ratio of debrisoquine to 4-hydroxydebrisoquine ranged from 0.01 to 86.98 in healthy subjects and from 0.02 to 96 in SLE patients. We observed the poor metabolizer(PM) debrisoquine phenotype in three of 39 patients with idiopathic SLE (7.6%) and five of 159 healthy subjects (3.1%). There was no significant difference in the frequency of PM phenotypes between idiopathic SLE and healthy subjects (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.19). No significant difference in the distribution of overall genotypes and allele frequencies were observed between the two groups. No significant relationships were found between specific clinical features and the overall genotype. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that CYP2D6 activity is not impaired in SLE and that there is no association between SLE and phenotypic CYP2D6 status. The results also showed that there was no difference in the frequency of CYP2D6A and CYP2D6B alleles between controls and patients with SLE.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words CYP2D6 ; Longevity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To test whether some genotypes for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 could contribute to longevity, we genotyped 241 Danish nonagenarians and centenarians for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. Methods: For CYP2D6 we identified the alleles CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*3 and CYP2D6*4 with allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The CYP2D6*5 alleles were identified with a long PCR method. For CYP2C19 we identified the alleles CYP2C19*1, CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 with an oligonucleotide ligation assay. Results: The four alleles for CYP2D6 did not occur in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. The frequency of poor metabolism was slightly higher (10.2%) than expected [7.7%; odds ratio (OR) = 1.36 (0.75–2.40)]. The genotypes for CYP2C19 occur in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. The frequency of poor metabolism (3.8%) was not significantly different from a young control group [3.1%; OR = 1.21 (0.26–5.75)]. Conclusion: CYP2D6 could play a role in human longevity due to the lack of Hardy-Weinberg proportions. If CYP2D6 only plays a role in longevity by protecting the poor metabolizers from cancer, we should expect a rise in the frequency in these genotypes in Denmark from 7.7% among young adults to 10–11% among very old people. We found a frequency of poor metabolism of 10.2% in the very old group. CYP2C19 is – due to the occurrence of Hardy-Weinberg proportions and the expected number of poor metabolizers – unlikely to contribute to human longevity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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