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  • 1
    Keywords: PROTEOMICS ; genomic ; methods ; LOCALIZATION
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 2
    Keywords: NETWORK ; CDNA ; FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS ; PROTEOMICS ; CDNAS
    Abstract: Among the greatest challenges facing biology today is the exploitation of huge amounts of genomic data, and their conversion into functional information about the proteins encoded. For example, the large-scale cDNA sequencing project of the German cDNA Consortium is providing vast numbers of open reading frames (ORFs) encoding novel proteins of completely unknown function. As a first step towards their characterization we have tagged over 500 of these with the green fluorescent protein (GFP), and examined the subcellular localizations of these fusion proteins in living cells. These data have allowed us to classify the proteins into subcellular groups which determines the next step towards a detailed functional characterization. To make further use of these GFP-tagged constructs, a series of functional assays have been designed and implemented to assess the effect of these novel proteins on processes such as cell growth, cell death, and protein transport. Functional assays with such a large set of molecules is only possible by automation. Therefore, we have developed, and adapted, functional assays for use by robotic liquid handling stations and reading stations. A transport assay allows to identify proteins which localize to distinct organelles of the secretory pathway and have the potential to be new regulators in protein transport, a proliferation assay helps identifying proteins that stimulate or repress mitosis. Further assays to monitor the effects of the proteins in apoptosis and signal transduction pathways are in progress. Integrating the functional information that is generated in the assays with data from expression profiling and further functional genomics and proteomics approaches, will ultimately allow us to identify functional networks of proteins in a morphological context, and will greatly contribute to our understanding of cell function.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14649292
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; THERAPY ; DIAGNOSIS ; INFORMATION ; NETWORK ; TOOL ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; BIOLOGY ; SEQUENCE ; FORM ; IDENTIFICATION ; HEALTH ; DATABASE ; PRODUCT ; bioinformatics ; LOCALIZATION ; WEB ; HUMAN GENES ; FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS ; PROTEOMICS ; PRODUCTS ; databases ; ANNOTATION ; RESOURCE ; PROTEIN-ANALYSIS ; FULL-LENGTH HUMAN ; HUMAN CDNAS
    Abstract: As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15489336
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  • 4
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; INFORMATION ; screening ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; gene expression ; ASSAY ; DATABASE ; bioinformatics ; INTERFACE ; PROJECT ; INTEGRATION ; FEATURES ; RE ; cell proliferation ; FULL-LENGTH HUMAN ; HUMAN CDNAS ; ASSAYS ; genomic ; NORTHERN
    Abstract: LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16381901
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  • 5
    Keywords: ALU REPEATS, chimeric gene, DISEASE, DISEASES, DISORDERS, DNA-SEQUENCES, DUPLICATION, EVOLUTION, EXP
    Abstract: Segmental duplications (SDs) play a key role in genome evolution by providing material for gene diversification and creation of variant or novel functions. They also mediate recombinations, resulting in microdeletions, which have occasionally been associated with human genetic diseases. Here, we present a detailed analysis of a large genomic region (about 240 kb), located on human chromosome 1q22, that contains a tandem SD, SD1q22. This duplication occurred about 37 million years ago in a lineage leading to anthropoid primates, after their separation from prosimians but before the Old and New World monkey split. We reconstructed the hypothetical unduplicated ancestral locus and compared it with the extant SDI q22 region. Our data demonstrate that, as a consequence of the duplication, new anthropoid-specific genetic material has evolved in the resulting paralogous segments. We describe the emergence of two new genes, whose new functions could contribute to the speciation of anthropoid primates. Moreover, we provide detailed information regarding structure and evolution of the SD1q22 region that is a prerequisite for future studies of its anthropoid-specific functions and possible linkage to human genetic disorders. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16545939
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  • 6
    Abstract: Analysis of biological processes is frequently performed with the help of phenotypic assays where data is mostly acquired in single end-point analysis. Alternative phenotypic profiling techniques are desired where time-series information is essential to the biological question, for instance to differentiate early and late regulators of cell proliferation in loss-of-function studies. So far there is no study addressing this question despite of high unmet interests, mostly due to the limitation of conventional end-point assaying technologies. We present the first human kinome screen with a real-time cell analysis system (RTCA) to capture dynamic RNAi phenotypes, employing time-resolved monitoring of cell proliferation via electrical impedance. RTCA allowed us to investigate the dynamics of phenotypes of cell proliferation instead of using conventional end-point analysis. By introducing data transformation with first-order derivative, i.e. the cell-index growth rate, we demonstrate this system suitable for high-throughput screenings (HTS). The screen validated previously identified inhibitor genes and, additionally, identified activators of cell proliferation. With the information of time kinetics available, we could establish a network of mitotic-event related genes to be among the first displaying inhibiting effects after RNAi knockdown. The time-resolved screen captured kinetics of cell proliferation caused by RNAi targeting human kinome, serving as a resource for researchers. Our work establishes RTCA technology as a novel robust tool with biological and pharmacological relevance amenable for high-throughput screening.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21765947
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; INHIBITOR ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; KINASE ; INFORMATION ; TOOL ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; transcription ; TUMORS ; RESOLUTION ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; BIOLOGY ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; MOUSE ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROGRESSION ; ASSAY ; microarrays ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; STRATEGIES ; DNA-REPLICATION ; REPLICATION ; signaling ; RE ; TUMORIGENICITY ; genomics ; TRANSITION ; DNA replication ; C-ELEGANS ; cell proliferation ; PROTEIN-ANALYSIS ; development ; ASSAYS ; DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ; high throughput ; HIGH-THROUGHPUT ; LONG ; PRIME ; PRINCIPLES ; REPRESSOR ; ROLES
    Abstract: Cancer transcription microarray studies commonly deliver long lists of "candidate" genes that are putatively associated with the respective disease. For many of these genes, no functional information, even less their relevance in pathologic conditions, is established as they were identified in large-scale genomics approaches. Strategies and tools are thus needed to distinguish genes and proteins with mere tumor association from those causally related to cancer. Here, we describe a functional profiling approach, where we analyzed 103 previously uncharacterized genes in cancer relevant assays that probed their effects on DNA replication (cell proliferation). The genes had previously been identified as differentially expressed in genome-wide microarray studies of tumors. Using an automated high-throughput assay with single-cell resolution, we discovered seven activators and nine repressors of DNA replication. These were further characterized for effects on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling (G(1)-S transition) and anchorage-independent growth (tumorigenicity). One activator and one inhibitor protein of ERK1/2 activation and three repressors of anchorage-independent growth were identified. Data from tumor and functional profiling make these proteins novel prime candidates for further in-depth study of their roles in cancer development and progression. We have established a novel functional profiling strategy that links genomics to cell biology and showed its potential for discerning cancer relevant modulators of the cell cycle in the candidate lists from microarray studies
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16140941
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  • 8
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; TISSUE ; TISSUES ; LINKAGE ; MOUSE ; IDENTIFICATION ; IN-SITU ; gene expression ; NUMBER ; DATABASE ; REGION ; REGIONS ; LOCALIZATION ; ORGANIZATION ; RE ; EXPRESSION PATTERNS ; MAP ; MENTAL-RETARDATION ; SUBUNIT PROTEIN ; CPG-BINDING PROTEIN-2
    Abstract: Background: Well known for its gene density and the large number of mapped diseases, the human sub-chromosomal region Xq28 has long been a focus of genome research. Over 40 of approximately 300 X-linked diseases map to this region, and systematic mapping, transcript identification, and mutation analysis has led to the identification of causative genes for 26 of these diseases, leaving another 17 diseases mapped to Xq28, where the causative gene is still unknown. To expedite disease gene identification, we have initiated the functional characterisation of all known Xq28 genes. Results: By using a systematic approach, we describe the Xq28 genes by RNA in situ hybridisation and Northern blotting of the mouse orthologs, as well as subcellular localisation and data mining of the human genes. We have developed a relational web-accessible database with comprehensive query options integrating all experimental data. Using this database, we matched gene expression patterns with affected tissues for 16 of the 17 remaining Xq28 linked diseases, where the causative gene is unknown. Conclusion: By using this systematic approach, we have prioritised genes in linkage regions of Xq28-mapped diseases to an amenable number for mutational screens. Our database can be queried by any researcher performing highly specified searches including diseases not listed in OMIM or diseases that might be linked to Xq28 in the future
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16503986
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  • 9
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; SYSTEM ; DISEASE ; GENES ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; ACTIVATION ; FLOW ; antibodies ; antibody ; IDENTIFICATION ; ASSAY ; CELL-DEATH ; fragmentation ; HUMAN GENOME ; FLUORESCENCE ; INHIBITORS ; CHEMISTRY ; RE ; flow cytometry ; genomics ; MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; methods ; NUCLEAR ; USA ; function ; CANDIDATE ; microbiology ; caspase-3 ; cell-based assay ; PERMEABILITY TRANSITION PORE ; VIRUS CORE PROTEIN
    Abstract: After sequencing the human genome, the challenge ahead is to systematically analyze the functions and disease relation of the proteins encoded. Here the authors describe the application of a flow cytometry-based high-throughput assay to screen for apoptosis-activating proteins in transiently transfected cells. The assay is based on the detection of activated caspase-3 with a specific antibody, in cells overexpressing proteins tagged C- or N-terminally with yellow fluorescent protein. Fluorescence intensities are measured using a flow cytometer integrated with a high-throughput autosampler. The applicability of this screen has been tested in a pilot screen with 200 proteins. The candidate proteins were all verified in an independent microscopy-based nuclear fragmentation assay, finally resulting in the identification of 6 apoptosis inducers
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17478479
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  • 10
    Keywords: GROWTH-FACTOR ; PATHWAY ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; PROGRESSION ; ADHESION ; INTERACTS ; MOTILITY ; ACTIN-FILAMENT ; ARC/ARG3.1 ; BARBED END ; FORMIN ; LIM DOMAIN
    Abstract: Background: Cell migration is essential during development and in human disease progression including cancer. Most cell migration studies concentrate on known or predicted components of migration pathways. Results: Here we use data from a genome-wide RNAi morphology screen in Drosophila melanogaster cells together with bioinformatics to identify 26 new regulators of morphology and cytoskeletal organization in human cells. These include genes previously implicated in a wide range of functions, from mental retardation, Down syndrome and Huntington's disease to RNA and DNA-binding genes. We classify these genes into seven groups according to phenotype and identify those that affect cell migration. We further characterize a subset of seven genes, FAM40A, FAM40B, ARC, FMNL3, FNBP3/FBP11, LIMD1 and ZRANB1, each of which has a different effect on cell shape, actin filament distribution and cell migration. Interestingly, in several instances closely related isoforms with a single Drosophila homologue have distinct phenotypes. For example, FAM40B depletion induces cell elongation and tail retraction defects, whereas FAM40A depletion reduces cell spreading. Conclusions: Our results identify multiple regulators of cell migration and cytoskeletal signalling that are highly conserved between Drosophila and humans, and show that closely related paralogues can have very different functions in these processes
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21834987
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