Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a family of acute-phase reactants. Plasma levels of human SAA1/SAA2 (mouse SAA1.1/2.1) can increase ≥1,000-fold during an acute-phase response. Mice, but not humans, express a third relatively understudied SAA isoform, SAA3. We investigated whether mouse SAA3 is an HDL-associated acute-phase SAA. Quantitative RT-PCR with isoform-specific primers indicated that SAA3 and SAA1.1/2.1 are induced similarly in livers (~2,500-fold vs. ~6,000-fold, respectively) and fat (~400-fold vs. ~100-fold, respectively) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice. In situ hybridization demonstrated that all three SAAs are produced by hepatocytes. All three SAA isoforms were detected in plasma of LPS-injected mice, although SAA3 levels were ~20% of SAA1.1/2.1 levels. Fast protein LC analyses indicated that virtually all of SAA1.1/2.1 eluted with HDL, whereas ~15% of SAA3 was lipid poor/free. After density gradient ultracentrifugation, isoelectric focusing demonstrated that ~100% of plasma SAA1.1 was recovered in HDL compared with only ~50% of SAA2.1 and ~10% of SAA3. Thus, SAA3 appears to be more loosely associated with HDL, resulting in lipid-poor/free SAA3. We conclude that SAA3 is a major hepatic acute-phase SAA in mice that may produce systemic effects during inflammation.
Chemistry and Pharmacology