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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; INHIBITION ; MICROSCOPY ; MODEL ; PERFUSION ; VIVO ; PROTEIN ; kidney ; MICROCIRCULATION ; REDUCTION ; TRANSPLANTATION ; RAT ; DAMAGE ; RECRUITMENT ; REJECTION ; FAILURE ; RECEPTORS ; chemokine ; ANTAGONIST ; inflammation ; endothelial cells ; ALLOGRAFT-REJECTION ; chemokines ; in vivo ; KIDNEY-TRANSPLANTATION ; ALLOGRAFT ; Allograft rejection ; ANTAGONIST VMIP-II ; Virokine ; vMIP-II
    Abstract: During rejection, leukocytes are recruited from the peripheral circulation into the graft leading to the damage of endothelial cells, capillary perfusion failure and graft loss. Chemokines play a pivotal role in the recruitment of leukocytes to the endothelium. Viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II (vMIP-II), a human herpes virus-8 DNA-encoded protein, is a broad-spectrum chemokine antagonist. The aim of the study was to prove the beneficial activity of vMIP-II treatment on acute rat kidney allograft damage. Heterotopic rat kidney transplantation was performed in the Fischer 344 to Lewis transplantation model and animals were treated with vMIP-II (2 x 15 A mu g or 100 A mu g/day) for 7 days. Rejection-induced damage was analyzed by histology, and microcirculatory changes within the graft were analyzed by in vivo microscopy. Viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II significantly improved acute glomerular damage and tubulointerstitial inflammation and lowered the extent of vascular and tubulointerstitial damage of the treated allografts. Functional microcirculation of peritubular capillaries was significantly improved in vivo, and the firm adherence of leukocytes was significantly reduced by vMIP-II treatment. The administration of the broad-spectrum antagonist vMIP-II improved acute renal allograft damage, mainly by a reduction in leukocyte recruitment with a subsequently improved renal cortical microcirculation in vivo
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20401660
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  • 2
    Keywords: ADHESION, ALLOGRAFTS, ALPHA(V)BETA(3), ALPHA(V)BETA(3) INTEGRIN, ALPHA-V-INTEGRINS, ANTAGONIST, ARRE
    Abstract: Integrin-mediated cell adhesion and signaling is essential to vascular development and inflammatory processes. Elevated expression of integrin alpha(v)beta(3) has been detected in ischemia-reperfusion injury and rejecting heart allografts. We thus hypothesized that the inhibition of alpha(v)-associated integrins may have potent anti-inflammatory effects in acute kidney allograft rejection. We studied the effects of a peptidomimetic antagonist of alpha(v) integrins in two rat models of renal allotransplantation, differing in degree of major histocompatibility complex mismatch. Integrin alpha(v)beta(3) was up-regulated in rejecting renal allografts. Integrin antagonist reduced the histological signs of acute rejection, the intensity of the mononuclear cell infiltration, and cell proliferation in the grafted kidneys. This could be correlated to a reduced leukocyte-endothelial interaction and an improved peritubular microcirculation observed by intravital microscopy. In vitro under laminar flow conditions, the arrest of monocytes to interleukin-1 beta-activated endothelium was decreased. Furthermore, in co-culture models the proliferation and transmigration of monocytes/macrophages, endothelium, and fibroblasts induced by renal tubular epithelia was efficiently inhibited by alpha(v) integrin antagonism. These data reveal an important role of this integrin subclass in leukocyte recruitment and development and maintenance of acute rejection; blockade of alpha(v) integrins may provide a new therapeutic strategy to attenuate acute allograft rejection
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17702892
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  • 3
    Keywords: ANTAGONIST, Biglycan, BIOLOGY, BX 471, CCR1, CELL, CELLS, CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR CCR1, chemokines, chron
    Abstract: The biology of chemokines and their receptors have been linked to the development of chronic allograft damage. Effects of CCR1 antagonist BX 471 were studied in a Fischer to Lewis renal transplantation model at days 10, 21 and 42 after transplantation. BX 471 treatment did not effectively reduce signs of acute rejection at day 10 but significantly improved allograft function and morphology at day 21 posttransplantation. When therapy was initiated on day 21 after transplantation, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis were significantly inhibited by day 42 posttransplantation. Parallel decrease in infiltrating and proliferating mononuclear cells (ED1, CD8 and Ki67) was observed in treated allografts. Expression of acute phase reactive and proinflammatory genes (HO-1, osteopontin) and molecules associated with fibrosis (PAI-1, TGF-beta 1, biglycan) was downregulated at day 21; reduced collagen deposition was observed, parallel to a significant lower number of alpha-SMA+ interstitial myofibroblasts. In situ hybridization demonstrated that biglycan expression was reduced following CCR1 blockade in interstitium of treated allografts. CCR1 antagonism was found to inhibit CCL5-induced secretion of biglycan by macrophages in vitro. CCR1 blockade significantly inhibited development and progression of chronic allograft damage. CCR1 antagonists may represent a therapeutic option for chronic inflammation and fibrosis in renal grafts
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17229070
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