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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 217 (1968), S. 1155-1156 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The data concerning the intracellular localization of tyrosine hydroxylase are rather conflicting. Nagatsu et al.*9 who first isolated the enzyme, described it as particle-bound, while Udenfriend3 has proposed that all enzymes involved in biosynthesis of catecholamine are organized into ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: etomidate ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamics ; rat ; electroencephalogram
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. The effect-plasma concentration relationship of etomidate was studied in the rat using electroencephalographic changes as a pharmacodynamic parameter. Methods. Etomidate was infused (50 mg/kg/h) in chronically instrumented rats (n = 6) until isoelectric periods of 5 s or longer were observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG was continuously recorded during the experiment and frequent arterial blood samples were taken for determination of etomidate plasma concentrations. The changes observed in the raw EEG signal were quantified using aperiodic analysis in the 2.5−7.5 Hz frequency band. The return of the righting reflex was used as another parameter of anesthesia. Results. A mean dose of 8.58 ± 0.41 mg/kg needed to be infused to reach the end point of 5 s isoelectric EEG. The plasma concentration time profiles were most adequately fitted using a three-exponential model. Systemic clearance, volume of distribution at steady-state and elimination half-life averaged 93 ± 6 ml/min/kg, 4.03 ± 0.24 l/kg and 59.4 ± 10.7 min respectively. The EEG effect-plasma concentration relationship was biphasic exhibiting profound hysteresis. Semi-parametric minimization of this hysteresis revealed an equilibration half-life of 2.65 ± 0.15 min, and the biphasic effect-concentration relationship was characterized nonparametrically by descriptors. The effect-site concentration at the return of the righting reflex was 0.44 ± 0.03 μg/ml. Conclusions. The results of the present study show that the concentration-effect relationship of etomidate can be characterized in individual rats using aperiodic analysis in the 2.5−7.5 Hz frequency band of the EEG. This characterization can be very useful for studying the influence of diseases on the pharmacodynamics of etomidate in vivo.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: enantioselectivity ; pharmacokinetics ; oxprenolol ; oxprenolol glucuronides ; probenecid ; active renal secretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. To study the effect of probenecid on the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of oxprenolol and its glucuronides in the rabbit. Methods. An oral dose of 50 mg/kg racemic oxprenolol was given to nine rabbits twice, in random sequence with and without the concurrent administration of probenecid. Oxprenolol enantiomers were determined in plasma and urine by an enantioselective HPLC method. Oxprenolol glucuronides were measured in plasma and urine after enzymatic hydrolysis. Results. The disposition of the oxprenolol enantiomers in rabbits is stereoselective, mainly due to a difference in metabolism. Renal excretion is only a minor elimination route for unchanged oxprenolol, and the renal clearances of the enantiomers are similar. Pre-treatment with probenecid did not affect the plasma concentrations of the oxprenolol enantiomers, but there was a slight decrease in their urinary excretion. The plasma concentrations of the oxprenolol glucuronides are much higher than those of the parent enantiomers, and those of (S)-glucuronide are about twice those of its antipode. About 10% of the oxprenolol dose is excreted in the urine as glucuronides. The renal clearances of both glucuronides are similar, and markedly higher than the creatinine clearance. After probenecid, the mean glucuronide plasma levels were markedly higher, with for both glucuronides a more than twofold increase in mean AUC. Probenecid decreased the renal clearance of both glucuronides to about 30%. Moreover, it decreased slightly the formation clearance of (S)-glucuronide, while the formation clearance of (R)-glucuronide was not significantly influenced. Conclusions. Our results show that in the rabbit, both oxprenolol glucuronide diastereomers are actively secreted by the kidney, and that this process is inhibited by probenecid.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: aging ; β-adrenergic blocking agent ; enantiomers ; propranolol ; protein binding ; stereoselective pharmacokinetics ; tissue binding ; tissue concentrations ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The influence of aging on the pharmacokinetics and the tissue distribution of (R)- and of (S)-propranolol was studied in 3-, 12-, and 24-month-old rats. After both iv and oral administration of rac-propranolol, the plasma concentrations were higher for the (R)- than for the (S)-enantiomer. For the tissue concentrations, the reverse was true. The free fraction of (S)-propranolol in plasma was about 4 times larger than that of (R)-propranolol, and this is the main factor responsible for the differences in kinetics between the two enantiomers. There was a suggestion for a difference in tissue binding between the two enantiomers. With aging, the plasma and tissue concentrations of both enantiomers increase, probably due to a decrease in blood clearance. Tissue binding did not change much with aging. Notwithstanding the marked differences between the kinetics of the propranolol enantiomers, the changes which occur with aging affect both enantiomers to the same degree.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: enantiomers ; propranolol ; enantioselective pharmacokinetics ; protein binding ; nicardipine ; drug-drug interaction ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The influence of a single oral dose of 30 mg nicardipine on the pharmacokinetics of (R)- and (S)-propranolol, given orally as rac-propranolol 80 mg, was studied in 12 healthy volunteers. The plasma concentrations were higher for the (S)-enantiomer than for the (R)-enantiomer. The Clo and the Cl′intr of (S)-propranolol were significantly lower than the Clo and Cl′intr of (R)-propranolol. The unbound fraction of (R)-propranolol was significantly higher than that of (S)-propranolol. Coadministration of nicardipine significantly increased the AUC and Cmax and significantly decreased the Clo and Cl′intr for unbound drug of (R)- and (S)-propranolol. These changes were more important for (R)- than for (S)-propranolol. The protein binding was not altered by nicardipine. The enantioselective effect of nicardipine on the metabolic clearance of propranolol appears to be due to an interaction at the level of the metabolizing enzymes. The effect on blood pressure of rac-propranolol was little affected when nicardipine was coadministered with rac-propranolol, and its bradycardic effect was reduced. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: β-adrenergic blocking agent ; calcium antagonist ; enantiomers ; inflammation ; protein binding ; pharmacokinetics ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The influence of endotoxin-induced inflammation on the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of propranolol, oxprenolol, and verapamil, which bind to α1-acid glycoprotein, was studied in the rat. The racemic mixtures were given orally. In the control animals, for propranolol and oxprenolol, the plasma concentrations of the (R)-enantiomer were higher than those of the (S)-enantiomer, while for verapamil the reverse was true. Protein binding and intrinsic clearance are the main factors responsible for this enantioselectivity. After endotoxin treatment, for the three drugs tested the plasma concentrations and the plasma binding of both enantiomers were significantly increased. This effect was more pronounced for (R)-propranolol, (R)-oxprenolol, and (S)-verapamil than for their respective antipodes. The enantioselective effect of endotoxin on the plasma concentrations of the drugs studied seems mainly due to the enantioselective increase in binding to α1-acid glycoprotein. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Fluorouracil in human plasma at a concentration as low as 2 ng ml-1 can be assayed with the use of gas-liquid chromatography and a multiple ion detector. Fluorouracil is isolated from plasma by anion exchange extraction. The extract is butylated and the derivative obtained extracted into a mixture of cyclohexane + dichloromethane (95:5). An aliquot is submitted to combined gas-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The use of chlorouracil or oxygen-18 labelled flurouracil as internal standard is discussed. Linearity is proven from 100 μg to 5 ng of fluorouracil per ml plasma. The coefficients of variation are 7.2 and 8.4% for within-run and between-run precision, respectively, at the 50 ng ml-1 level. The biological applicability of our procedure is demonstrated by analysing plasma samples obtained at different time intervals from three patients given 1 g of fluorouracil once intravenously and once orally.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: oxprenolol ; propranolol ; verapamil ; enantiomers ; inflammation ; endotoxin ; protein binding ; pharmacokinetics ; species ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The influence of endotoxin-induced inflammation was studied on the pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of the racemic drugs oxprenolol, propranolol, and verapamil in rabbits and dogs. Enantioselective pharmacokinetics were seen for oxprenolol and propranolol in the rabbit and for propranolol and verapamil in the dog. In the dog, the enantioselective differences in plasma concentrations are due to differences in both protein binding and metabolism, whereas in the rabbit the differences are due solely to differences in metabolism. In both species endotoxin treatment increases the plasma concentrations of the enantiomers of the three drugs; both protein binding and metabolism are influenced. In rabbits and in dogs, the influence of endotoxin on the disposition of the three drugs is less enantioselective than was previously observed in the rat. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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