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  • 1
    Keywords: GENE ; IDENTIFICATION ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; ORGANIZATION ; NEURAL STEM-CELLS ; PROGENITORS ; RADIAL GLIA ; TLX ; OLFACTORY-BULB ; MAMMALIAN BRAIN
    Abstract: The tailless (Tlx) gene encodes an orphan nuclear receptor that is expressed by neural stem/progenitor cells in the adult brain of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG). The function of Tlx in neural stem cells of the adult SVZ remains largely unknown. We show here that in the SVZ of the adult brain Tlx is exclusively expressed in astrocyte-like B cells. An inducible mutation of the Tlx gene in the adult brain leads to complete loss of SVZ neurogenesis. Furthermore, analysis indicates that Tlx is required for the transition from radial glial cells to astrocyte-like neural stem cells. These findings demonstrate the crucial role of Tlx in the generation and maintenance of NSCs in the adult SVZ in vivo
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18794344
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  • 2
    Keywords: brain ; RECEPTOR ; ANGIOGENESIS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; CELL ; ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH-FACTOR ; Germany ; THERAPY ; LONG-TERM ; GENE ; transcription ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; MICE ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; prognosis ; BIOLOGY ; LESIONS ; AGE ; genetics ; p53 ; B-CELLS ; MIGRATION ; STEM-CELLS ; MOUSE MODEL ; FREQUENT ; OVEREXPRESSION ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; GLIOMAS ; brain tumor ; BRAIN-TUMORS ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR ; GLIOMA ; MALIGNANT GLIOMA ; development ; neurogenesis ; tailless ; MOUSE MODELS ; B-CELL ; EXPANSION ; GLIOBLASTOMA ; SELF-RENEWAL ; HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA-MULTIFORME ; CELL BIOLOGY ; MAMMALIAN BRAIN ; Genetic ; GLIOBLASTOMAS ; BRAIN-TISSUE ; CONTRIBUTE ; ADULT SUBVENTRICULAR ZONE ; GLIAL TUMORS ; neural stem cells ; VASCULAR NICHE
    Abstract: Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors, and are associated with frequent resistance to therapy as well as poor prognosis. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear receptor tailless (Tlx), which in the adult is expressed exclusively in astrocyte-like B cells of the subventricular zone, acts as a key regulator of neural stem cell (NSC) expansion and brain tumor initiation from NSCs. Overexpression of Tlx antagonizes age-dependent exhaustion of NSCs in mice and leads to migration of stem/progenitor cells from their natural niche. The increase of NSCs persists with age, and leads to efficient production of newborn neurons in aged brain tissues. These cells initiate the development of glioma-like lesions and gliomas. Glioma development is accelerated upon loss of the tumor suppressor p53. Tlx-induced NSC expansion and gliomagenesis are associated with increased angiogenesis, which allows for the migration and maintenance of brain tumor stem cells in the perivascular niche. We also demonstrate that Tlx transcripts are overexpressed in human primary glioblastomas in which Tlx expression is restricted to a subpopulation of nestin-positive perivascular tumor cells. Our study clearly demonstrates how NSCs contribute to brain tumorgenesis driven by a stem cell-specific transcription factor, thus providing novel insights into the histogenesis and molecular pathogenesis of primary brain tumors
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20360385
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  • 3
    Keywords: brain ; RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; SYSTEM ; SITE ; SITES ; GENE ; MICE ; FAMILY ; animals ; CONTRAST ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; MEMBER ; DELETION ; MOUSE ; MUTANT ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; PERFORMANCE ; NUMBER ; LINE ; inactivation ; PROGENITOR CELLS ; ABNORMALITIES ; CRE RECOMBINASE ; RE ; FAMILIES ; LEADS ; MICE LACKING ; CRE ; DEFECTS ; neurogenesis ; NUCLEAR ; function ; DEFECT ; progenitor cell ; animal ; RETINAL DEGENERATION ; NULL MICE ; PROGENITOR-CELL ; AGGRESSION ; aggressiveness ; ANXIETY ; blindness ; conditional mutant ; learning and memory ; RADIAL GLIA ; TLX
    Abstract: During embryogenesis, tailless, an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family, is expressed in the germinal zones of the brain and the developing retina, and is involved in regulating the cell cycle of progenitor cells. Consequently, a deletion of the tailless gene leads to decreased cell number with associated anatomical defects in the limbic system, the cortex and the eye. These structural abnormalities are associated with blindness, increased aggressiveness, poor performance in learning paradigms and reduced anxiousness. In order to assess the contribution of blindness to the behavioural changes, we established tailless mutant mice with intact visual abilities. We generated a mouse line in which the second exon of the tailless gene is flanked by loxP sites and crossed these animals with a transgenic line expressing the Cre recombinase in the neurogenic area of the developing brain, but not in the eye. The resulting animals have anatomically indistinguishable brains compared with tailless germline mutants, but are not blind. They are less anxious and much more aggressive than controls, like tailless germline mutants. In contrast to germline mutants, the conditional mutants are not impaired in fear conditioning. Furthermore, they show good performance in the Morris water-maze despite severely reduced hippocampal structures. Thus, the pathological aggressiveness and reduced anxiety found in tailless germline mutants are due to malformations caused by inactivation of the tailless gene in the brain, but the poor performance of tailless null mice in learning and memory paradigms is dependent on the associated blindness
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17953618
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-879X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The influence of fullerenes and related support materials on the structural and catalytic properties of ruthenium was investigated. Catalysts based on C60, raw fullerene black, extracted fullerene black, cathode deposit and graphite were prepared by an impregnation/activation procedure with Ru3CO12. The local co-ordination sphere of the resulting highly dispersed X-ray amorphous ruthenium was investigated by means of EXAFS. The dominating role of the presence of non-six-membered carbon rings on the structure and the stability of the Ru particles will be illustrated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-879X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The influence of fullerenes and related support materials on the catalytic properties of ruthenium was investigated. The catalytic behaviour of catalysts based on C60, raw fullerene black, extracted fullerene black, cathode deposit, and graphite was examined using low-temperature CO hydrogenation and liquid-phase hydrogenation of 2-cyclohexenone at atmospheric pressure. The relevance of non-six-membered carbon rings (NSMCR) in support materials on the stability and catalytic performance of the Ru particles will be illustrated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1436-5073
    Keywords: fullerenes ; intercalation ; oxidation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The investigation of structural and electronic properties of the novel family of fullerenes depends on the existence of pure reference materials. Sublimation of the van-der Waals solids is a suitable purification method. Little attention has been paid to the question about the air stability of such sublimed samples in form of crystals or thin films. A combination of thermal desorption spectroscopy, thermal analysis and diffuse reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy is used to show the extent to which oxygen from dry air is intercalated into fullerenes and which detrimental reactivity occurs from attempts to thermally remove („nneal”) air-exposed samples. The conclusion is that any fullerene sample exposed to air will be transformed in part into a polymeric non-fullerene carbon upon thermal treatment to above 400 K irrespective of its initial purity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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