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  • 1
    Call number: W26.5:16/40
    Keywords: Medizin / Diagnose ; Tumor / Epidemiologie ; Epidemiologie / EDV ; Epidemiologie / Arbeitsmethodik
    Pages: xi, 450 p.
    ISBN: 3-540-12007-6
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  • 2
    Call number: W26.5:19/11
    Keywords: Medicine / Bibliography ; Information Services ; Documentation ; Epidemiologic Studies ; Research Design
    Pages: 35 p.
    ISBN: 3-7945-1454-8
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Adenocarcinomas ; Nuclear DNA content ; Prognosis ; Salivary glands
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary 52 salivary adenocarcinomas of the years 1965–1980 from the files of the Salivary Gland Registry, Institute of Pathology, University of Hamburg, were evaluated retrospectively with regard to clinical follow up and cytochemically assessed nuclear DNA content. The age distribution showed a peak from the 6th to 8th decade (range 3 to 87 years). The m∶f ratio was 1∶1.36, the mean age was 59.3 years. Over 80% of the tumours were located in the major salivary glands. The clinical course was characterized by metastases present at initial diagnosis (16 cases), subsequent development of metastases (9 cases), local recurrence (15 cases) or death from tumour (10 cases) and was related to differentiation, grade 3 tumours showing the worse clinical courses. In 37 cases, nuclear DNA content was determined by a single scanning cytophotometry device. 28 cases were diploid, 9 were atypical. The clinical course was significantly related to the histogram type, atypical tumours showing a dismal prognosis.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To date, dacarbazine (DTIC) has been the most effective drug in the treatment of advanced metastatic melanoma, achieving response rates of up to 28% (mean, 21%). Multidrug responses were generally no better than those obtained using monotherapy. A quite promising clinical trial was conducted using the new nitrosourea fotemustine. A total of 19 patients presenting with advanced malignant melanoma (clinical stage IV according to the 1987 UICC classification system) underwent treatment involving a more rapid infusion of the drug and a reduction in the rest period from 5 to 3 weeks. This monotherapy with fotemustine yielded two complete responses and seven partial responses; in addition, four patients showed no change and six cases progressed after the induction cycle (median duration of response to date, 7.6 months, including four cases that have not relapsed). Fotemustine was well tolerated by the patients, with the only mild side effects being thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia and easily controlled nausea/vomiting. Preclinical studies performed previously indicated that fotemustine inhibits enzymes involved in the ribonucleotide reduction pathway (i.e. DNA synthesis), whereby responding patients (n=3) appeared to favor the thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin electron transfer to ribonucleotide reductase, whereas non-responders (n=4) expressed the alternate glutathione reductase/glutaredoxin mechanism. The 47% response rate obtained in these studies vs the 24% reported previously for fotemustine may reflect variations in enzymes in the ribonucleotide reduction pathway in different patients. However, the efficacy of fotemustine against advanced melanoma warrants more extensive trials of this drug, especially since the quality of life of the patients during and after chemotherapy was not severely affected.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary (n = 90) and lacrimal glands (n = 6) from the years 1965–1980 were evaluated retrospectively with regard to clinical, epidemiologic and histomorphologic parameters, and in 52 cases, nuclear DNA content was assessed using a single cell scanning cytophotometry procedure in order to determine prognostic factors. Clinical courses were poor with a high incidence of recurrences, hematogenous metastases and deaths from tumor. Histology was related to prognosis, glandular tumors showing a better prognosis than solid ones. Tumor size 〉4 cm was correlated with an unfavorable clinical course in all cases. Cytophotometry yielded various types of histograms (7 diploid, 10 proliferative, 14 triploid, 19 atypical, 2 tetraploid). Significant correlations were found as to the time of survival, tumors with diploid histograms showing the longest intervals and those with atypical ones the shortest. Although the prognosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma remains poor, cytophotometry can offer additional prognostic information in the individual case.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Integrins are important mammalian receptors involved in normal cellular functions as well as pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and cancer. We propose that integrins are exploited by the gastric pathogen and type-1 carcinogen Helicobacter pylori for injection of the bacterial oncoprotein ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidases are widely distributed among bacteria. However, in Escherichia coli, only one periplasmic amidase has been described until now, which is suggested to play a role in murein recycling. Here, we report that three amidases, named AmiA, B and C, exist in E. coli and that they are involved in splitting of the murein septum during cell division. Moreover, the amidases were shown to act as powerful autolytic enzymes in the presence of antibiotics. Deletion mutants in amiA, B and C were growing in long chains of unseparated cells and displayed a tolerant response to the normally lytic combination of aztreonam and bulgecin. Isolated murein sacculi of these chain-forming mutants showed rings of thickened murein at the site of blocked septation. In vitro, these murein ring structures were digested more slowly by muramidases than the surrounding murein. In contrast, when treated with the amidase AmiC or the endopeptidase MepA, the rings disappeared, and gaps developed at these sites in the murein sacculi. These results are taken as evidence that highly stressed murein cross-bridges are concentrated at the site of blocked cell division, which, when cleaved, result in cracking of the sacculus at this site. As amidase deletion mutants accumulate trimeric and tetrameric cross-links in their murein, it is suggested that these structures mark the division site before cleavage of the septum.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-911X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé A l'occasion d'un dépistage réalisé du 17 au 26 juin 1988, 2063 visiteurs de la «semaine de Kiel» ont été interrogés, leur tension artérielle et leur cholestérol total ont été mesurés. Ces personnes étainet âgées de 5 à 88 ans (médiane 53 ans). Les deux tiers environ des personnes interrogées connaissaient mal l'importance de l'hypertension et de l'hypercholestérolémie comme facteurs de risque des maladies coronariennes. Le pourcentage des sujets normotendus était de 98% chez les moins de 20 ans et diminuait avec l'âge pour atteindre 63% chez les sujets de plus de 70 ans. Chez 20% des moins de 20 ans, le cholestérol dépassait 200 mg/dl, dans la tranche d'âge de 30–40 ans presque un sur deux, et après 50 ans 80% dépassaient cette limite. La proportion des personnes ayant un cholestérol supérieur à 240 mg/dl passait de 18% chez les 20–30 ans, à plus de 50% après 60 ans. Dans tous les âges, le cholestérol augmentait avec la consommation de cigarettes. Cette étude illustre la nécessité de développer des instruments efficaces pour l'éducation à la santé, afin de réduire le cholestérol et l'hypertension dans la population et, ainsi, la morbidité et la mortalité cardiovasculaires.
    Abstract: Summary A screening for total cholesterol levels and blood pressure was conducted in Kiel during the sailing competition 1988 following the suggestion of the American Health Foundation. During the ten days of the testing 2063 visitors were screened, aged 5 to 88 years. Two thirds of the participants had no idea about the connection between high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels and the risk of coronary heart disease. The percentage of subjects with normotomic blood pressure decreased from 98 to 63% by age. Concerning the cholesterol levels the percentage of subjects at moderate risk for coronary heart disease increased from 20 to 80% by age and beyond fifty years of age the persons had cholesterol levels above 240 mg/dl. The total cholesterol levels increased by cigarette smoking. Our results demonstrate the need to improve the efforts of health education for lowering the cholesterol levels in the population, and thereby lead to a reduction in the morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Im Zeitraum von 17. bis 26. Juni 1988 wurden anlässlich einer Screening-Aktion bei 2063 Besuchern der Kieler Woche anamnestische Angaben erhoben und der Blutdruck und das Gesamtcholesterin bestimmt. Das Alter der Personen lag zwischen 5 und 88 Jahren (Median 53 Jahre). Rund zwei Drittel der befragten Personen waren nur mangelhaft über die Bedeutung eines erhöhten Blutdruckes und eines erhöhten Blutfettwertes als Risikofaktor für die Entstehung von koronaren Herzkrankheiten informiert. Der Anteil der Normotoniker fiel von 98% unter den unter Zwanzigjährigen mit steigendem Lebensalter auf 63% bei den über Siebzigjährigen ab. Unter den Zwanzigjährigen wies schon fast jeder Fünfte einen Cholesterinwert von über 200 mg/dl auf, in der Altersklasse der Dreissig- bis Vierzigjährigen war es jeder Zweite und bei den über Fünfzigjährigen überschritten 80% diesen Grenzwert und jeder Vierte hatte gleichzeitig einen überhöhten Blutdruck- und Cholesterinwert. Der Anteil der Personen mit Cholesterinwerten von über 240 mg/dl stieg von 18% bei den Zwanzig- bis Dreissigjährigen auf über 50% bei den über Sechzigjährigen an. Zigarettenrauchen erhöht in allen digkeit, effizientere Methoden zur gesundheitlichen Aufklärung und Bewusstseinsänderung in der Bevölkerung zu entwickeln, um über eine gesündere Lebensweise den Anteil der Personen mit erhöhten Blutdruck- und Blutfettwerten langfristig zu reduzieren und somit die Morbidität und Mortalität an Krankheiten des Herz-Kreislaufsystems zu senken.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Acetylcholine ; Butyrylcholinesterase ; Spatiotemporal gradient ; Plexiform layers ; ON ; OFF pathways ; Retina wiring ; Visual system ; Chicken
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Retinal physiology is balanced by the interplay between an ON and an OFF channel. The formation of this wiring dichotomy is not understood. Two neuropil sublayers of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) represent levels of cholinergic synaptic circuitry. These two sublayers are better segregated in avians than in most vertebrates; in the chick they are called a and d and participate in the OFF and ON channel, respectively. Both levels can be detected easily in the mature retina by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or by acetylcholinesterase (AChE); however, the usefulness of these enzymes as developmental markers is restricted, since ChAT is detected too late, while AChE labels not only cholinergic neuropil. To establish that individual AChE+ cells indeed project into cholinergic subbands a or d (and thus are involved in either channel), in the first part of this study we used the AChE-specific monoclonal antibody 1A2 plus confocal microscopy. We show that at embryonic stage E17 two AChE+ cell types of the inner nuclear layer project into the cholinergic subband a, and another one projects into d. Moreover, two others project into noncholinergic subbands, b and c, which develop only from E14 onwards. In contrast to immunocytochemistry, sensitive AChE histochemistry allows us to trace back the establishment of subbands a and d before E10, with the first AChE subband appearing along with IPL differentiation at E7. The establishment of AChE subbands is preceded by butyrylcholinesterase subbands; with differentiation following a central-peripheral gradient. Since synapses do not develop before E12 in the chick, we conclude that retinal ON–OFF dichotomy is laid down long before the formation of chemical synapses.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Medical microbiology and immunology 153 (1966), S. 68-82 
    ISSN: 1432-1831
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es darf gefolgert werden, daß sich die Taube experimentell leicht mit Toxoplasmen infizieren läßt, serologisch die Infektion mittels des SF-Testes immer festzustellen ist, wobei 4–5 Tage post i.v. Infektion die ersten Antikörper auftreten (Abb.3 und Tab.4). In der Regel kommt es zu keiner Ausscheidung infektionsfähiger Toxoplasmen und damit zu einer Verbreitung der Erreger unter den Tauben oder anderen Tieren. Dem entspricht auch, daß von den 184 verwilderten Tauben, die aus mehreren Fängen in den Monaten April–Juli unter jeweils 50–100 Tauben ausgewählt wurden, kein serologisch positives Tier zu ermitteln war. Dies deutet darauf hin, daß natürliche Toxoplasmoseinfektionen unter Tauben seltener sind, als man nach der Literatur annehmen könnte, und daß es nur selten zu einer Ausbreitung der Infektion unter natürlichen Bedingungen kommt. Toxoplasma-Infektionen dürften im Gegensatz zur Ornithose, die überall regelmäßig und zu einem durchschnittlichen Prozentsatz von 30–35% gefunden wird, unter den verwilderten, herrenlosen Haustauben eine Ausnahme darstellen. Da die Durchseuchung der Bevölkerung und der Tierpopulationen mit dem Protozoon Toxoplasma gondii im Raum Frankfurt nicht signifikant von derjenigen anderer Städte abweicht, da die in dem Schrifttum berichteten Untersuchungen der verwilderten Taubenscharen in der Regel negativ verliefen, wird angenommen, daß die Taube in der Epidemiologie der Toxoplasmose keine oder nur eine sehr geringe Rolle spielt und nur ein Nebenglied in der Infektionskette empfänglicher Tiere darstellt.
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