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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The nuclei of Amphiuma contain 168 pg of DNA, 28 times that contained in human nuclei. Although many higher organisms appear to possess an excessive amount of DNA, in Amphiuma this has been carried to the extreme. Studies of this organism thus may provide some insight into how this excess DNA is used. This organism presumably evolved by numerous polyploidy and gene duplication events. Do its gene products present multiple electrophoretic forms? Are they quantitatively increased to the same degree as the DNA? Electrophoresis of Amphiuma glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, and hemoglobin failed to show any evidence for multiple electrophoretic forms of these respective gene products. The amount of hemoglobin, G6PD, and 6PGD per red cell was increased to a comparable or even greater degree than the DNA. Analytical ultracentrifugation demonstrated a satellite band of DNA with a density of 1.720 corresponding to a GC content of 61%. This probably represents DNA coding for ribosomal RNA. Electron microscopy of liver nuclei showed a significant amount of condensed chromatin. The implications of these observations are discussed.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148 , USA , and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2XG , UK . : Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
    ISSN: 1542-474X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Congestive cardiac failure is associated with increased sympathetic activity and impaired baroreflex function. We sought to test the hypothesis that these patients also have blunted response of beat-to-beat QT interval variability during orthostatic challenge. Methods: We compared beat-to-beat heart rate and QT interval data in 17 patients with congestive cardiac failure and 17 age-matched normal controls in supine normal breathing, supine controlled breathing, and standing controlled breathing conditions. The ECG data were acquired in lead II configuration at a sampling rate of 1000 Hz. Results: Supine controlled breathing was associated with an increase in spectral HF power (0.15–0.5 Hz) of HR and QT interval time series compared to spontaneous breathing condition only in controls. While there were significant changes in HR, HR LF power, HR LF/HF ratios, and QT variability measures in standing posture in controls, there were no such changes in patients. Conclusions: This impairment of postural changes of HR variability is most likely due to an impaired baroreceptor function in patients with congestive heart failure. The etiology of this is likely due to an increased cardiac sympathetic and a decreased vagal function. However, the relationship of postural changes in beat-to-beat QT interval variability and baroreflex need further investigation.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148 , USA , and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1542-474X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is characterized by progressive replacement of RV myocardium with fibro-adipose tissue thought to be responsible for the presence of late potentials (LP) detected by SAECG. The general consensus on the role of SAECG in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with ARVD is lacking. The purpose of this systematic review was to better define the role of SAECG in ARVD. Methods: An extensive review of literature was done to specifically describe the prevalence of LP in ARVD and its determinants, explore the various options available to improve the diagnostic ability of SAECG, and provide recommendations for proper utilization of this technique. Results: LPs are frequent in ARVD (47–100%), and more prevalent in severe disease and in patients with documented spontaneous VT. SAECG is a useful test in following the characteristic evolutivity of the disease. 4–16% of normal family members of patients with ARVD also have abnormal SAECG results. Detection of LP in ARVD can be improved by employing a high-pass filter of 25 Hz and specifically looking for changes in the Z leads. Conclusions: SAECG testing should be considered a standard part of the evaluation of patients with known or suspected ARVD. Further research is needed to confirm the value of SAECG testing in predicting arrhythmia risk and assessing the rate of disease progression, as well as to determine if greater prevalence of SAECG abnormalities in family members of patients with ARVD represents early detection of ARVD. The ongoing multidisciplinary study of right ventricular dysplasia will hopefully answer some of these questions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: ATIGA, W.L., et al.: Prospective Randomized Comparison of Cooled Radiofrequency Versus Standard Radiofrequency Energy for Ablation of Typical Atrial Flutter. In patients with atrial flutter, conventional RF ablation may not result in complete isthmus block. This prospective, randomized study tested the hypothesis that the cooled RF ablation is safe and facilitates the achievement of isthmus block with fewer RF applications than with standard ablation for typical atrial flutter. Isthmus ablation was performed in 59 patients (40 men, 64 ± 14 years) with type I atrial flutter using standard RF (n = 31) or cooled RF (n = 28) catheters with crossover after 12 unsuccessful RF applications. The endpoint was bidirectional isthmus block or a total of 24 unsuccessful RF applications. After the first 12 RF applications, 17 (55%) of 31 standard RF and 22 (79%) of 28 cooled RF patients had bidirectional isthmus block (P 〈 0.05). After the remaining patients crossed over to the alternate RF ablation system and underwent up to 12 more RF applications, bidirectional isthmus block had been demonstrated in 27 (87%) of 31 standard RF and 25 (89%) of 28 cooled RF patients (P = NS). Isthmus block was not achieved within 24 RF applications in four standard and three cooled RF patients. Mean measured tip temperatures for cooled RF were lower than for standard RF (38.5°C ± 6.98°C vs 57.2°C ± 7.42°C, P 〈 0.0001). Peak temperatures were also lower for cooled RF compared to standard RF (45.7°C ± 22.7°C vs 63.4°C ± 9.87°C, P 〈 0.0001). Importantly, mean power delivered was significantly higher for cooled than for standard RF (42.3 ± 9.48 vs 34.0 ± 14.0 W, P 〈 0.0001). There were no serious complications for either ablation system. During a 12.8 ± 3.76-month follow-up, there were two atrial flutter recurrences in the cooled RF group and four in the standard RF group (P = NS). In patients with type I atrial flutter, ablation with the cooled RF catheter is as safe as, and facilitates creation of bidirectional isthmus block more rapidly than, standard RF ablation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: CALKINS, H., et al.: Prospective Randomized Comparison of the Safety and Effectiveness of Placement of Endocardial Pacemaker and Defibrillator Leads Using the Extrathoracic Subclavian Vein Guided by Contrast Venography Versus the Cephalic Approach. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare the safety and efficacy of the cephalic approach versus a contrast-guided extrathoracic approach for placement of endocardial leads. Despite an increased incidence of lead fracture, the intrathoracic subclavian approach remains the dominant approach for placement of pacemaker and implantable defibrillator leads. Although this complication can be prevented by lead placement in the cephalic vein or by lead placement in the extrathoracic subclavian or axillary vein, these approaches have not gained acceptance. A total of 200 patients were randomized to undergo placement of pacemaker or implantable defibrillator leads via the contrast-guided extrathoracic subclavian vein approach or the cephalic approach. Lead placement was accomplished in 99 of the 100 patients randomized to the extrathoracic subclavian vein approach as compared to 64 of 100 patients using the cephalic approach. In addition to a higher initial success rate, the extrathoracic subclavian vein medial approach was determined to be preferable as evidenced by a shorter procedure time and less blood loss. There was no difference in the incidence of complications. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that lead placement in the extrathoracic subclavian vein guided by contrast venography is effective and safe. It was also associated with no increased risk of complications as compared with the cephalic approach. These findings suggest that the contrast-guided approach to the extrathoracic portion of the subclavian vein should be considered as an alternative to the cephalic approach.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: QT Interval Variability and Sudden Death. Introduction: Recent studies have implicated repolarization lability in the genesis of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. However, few data exist on assessment of temporal QT interval variability and its relation to arrhythmogenesis. We tested the ability of the QT variability index (QTVI), a measure of beat-to-beat QT interval fluctuations measured on a single ECG lead, to identify patients presenting with malignant ventricular arrhythmias and predict their subsequent occurrences. Methods and Results: We measured the QTVI in 95 patients presenting for electrophysiologic study (EPS). The ability of the QTVI to identify patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD) or sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (MVT) on presentation and during follow-up of 23.7 ± 14.3 months was compared with spatial QT dispersion, T wave alternans ratio during atrial pacing, MVT inducibility at EPS, signal-averaged ECG, heart rate variability, and ejection fraction. The QTVI was higher in patients with heart disease than in controls (-0.7 ± 0.7 vs −1.1 ± 0.5, P 〈 0.05), and higher in patients presenting with SCD than in other patients with heart disease (0.0 ± 0.6 vs −0.8 ± 0.5, P 〈 0.05). The QTVI was the only clinical variable that identified patients who presented with SCD (P= 0.004, odds ratio = 12.5) on stepwise, logistic multiple regression. Fourteen patients had arrhythmic events during follow-up. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis of arrhythmic events, QTVI ≥ 0.1 was a discriminator for higher risk of arrhythmic events (P 〈 0.05). Conclusions: (1) This noninvasive measure of temporal repolarization lability identified patients with SCD and predicted arrhythmia-free survival. (2) Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms that mediate beat-to-beat QT interval variability.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: Typical atrial flutter (AFL) can be cured by catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI). The surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is not always diagnostic of isthmus dependence of AFL. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical parameters for the prediction of isthmus-dependent AFL. Methods and Results: Sixty consecutive adult patients without suspected atriotomy-related AFL, congenital heart disease, or previous AFL ablation, referred for catheter ablation of presumed typical AFL were studied. All patients had distinct flutter waves in the inferior leads, suggestive of CTI-dependent AFL, either on presentation to the electrophysiology (EP) lab or documented on prior ECG. Electrophysiology study was performed in the standard fashion. Patients who presented to the EP laboratory not in AFL underwent arrhythmia induction with a burst pacing protocol.A clinical history of persistent AFL (P = 0.0001) and existence of AFL on presentation to the EP laboratory (P = 0.0001) were strong predictors of CTI dependence. History of atrial fibrillation (P = 0.19), structural heart disease (P = 0.6), hypertension (P = 0.4), and previous cardiac surgery (P = 0.5), as well as the nature of AFL-related symptoms (P = 0.5), were not predictors of CTI-dependent AFL documented during EP study. Conclusion: In patients with ECG suggestive of typical AFL, the presence of persistent rather than paroxysmal AFL and presentation to the EP laboratory in AFL are strong predictors of CTI-dependent AFL. A paroxysmal pattern of AFL predicts noninducibility of CTI-dependent AFL during EP study. CTI ablation may therefore be less effective in these patients.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: Catheter ablation of the pulmonary veins (PVs) for prevention of recurrent atrial fibrillation requires precise anatomic information. We describe the characteristics of a new anatomic variant of PV anatomy using magnetic resonance angiography. Methods and Results: A 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging system with a body coil or a torso phased-array coil was used before and after gadolinium injection. Magnetic resonance angiograms were acquired with a breath-hold three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient-echo imaging sequence in the coronal plane. Three-dimensional reconstruction with maximum intensity projections and multiplanar reformations was performed. A newly described variant PV ascending from the roof of the left atrium was found in 3 of 91 subjects. The mean ostial diameter of the roof PV was 7 ± 2 mm, the mean distance from the ostium to the first branching point was 22 ± 8.5 mm, and the mean distance to the right superior PV was 3.3 ± 0.6 mm. Conclusion: We refer to the newly described variant of PV anatomy as the “right top pulmonary vein.” It is important to be aware of this anatomic pattern to avoid inadvertent catheter intubation, which can result in misleading mapping results and PV stenosis. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 15, pp. 538-543, May 2004)
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: Delineation of pulmonary vein (PV) anatomy is an integral part of the PV isolation procedure. The aims of the present study were to (1) describe the technique of selective PV angiography, (2) show the typical fluoroscopic locations and appearance of the PVs, and (3) compare the ostial diameters of PVs measured by angiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Results: Twenty consecutive patients undergoing a PV isolation procedure underwent selective PV angiography using a deflectable 8-French lumened catheter (Naviport, Cardima). The left superior PV (LSPV) runs upward and away from the spine in the right anterior oblique (RAO) projection and upward and toward the spine in the left anterior oblique (LAO) projection. The opposite is true for the right superior PV (RSPV). The left inferior PV (LIPV) has a bull's-eye appearance in the RAO projection, and the right inferior PV (RIPV) has a bull's-eye appearance in the LAO projection due to their end-on trajectories. The LIPV in the LAO projection and the RIPV in the RAO projection run horizontally toward the spine. An excellent correlation was noted in PV ostial size as assessed by angiography and MRI (r2 〈 0.90, P 〈 0.0001). Conclusion: This study describes the technique and results of PV angiography and fluoroscopy. The study also demonstrates good correlation of PV ostial diameters by contrast venography and MRI. PV angiography can be used as an alternate to MRI or computed tomographic imaging, particularly when these tests are unavailable or are contraindicated in the patient. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 15, pp. 21-26, January 2004)
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Circular Mapping Catheter Entrapment in MV Apparatus. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of focal atrial fibrillation triggers within the pulmonary veins is a rapidly developing therapy that relies on both recent technologies and evolving techniques. We describe the entrapment of a circular mapping catheter within the mitral valve apparatus after transseptal catheterization and mapping of the left atrium and pulmonary veins. The occurrence of this previously unreported complication stresses the need for continual monitoring and reporting of adverse effects from new devices and procedures to better inform patients and physicians of the benefits and risks of electrophysiologic interventions.
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