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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: CT ; Infantile hepatic haemangioendothelioma ; MRI ; Ultrasonography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 4-week-old male infant was admitted to the hospital with acute gastrointestinal bleeding and marked coagulopathy secondary to vitamin K malabsorption in the presence of cholestasis. Physical examination revealed hepatomegaly and cutaneous haemangiomas. Ultrasonography, CT, and MRI demonstrated a multifocal vascular process and allowed the diagnosis of infantile hepatic haemangioendothelioma to be made without the use of more invasive diagnostic procedures. To avoid high-output congestive heart failure, the patient was treated with oral corticosteroids. After 5 months, rapid involution of the vascular malformations ensued. At age 2 years, a magnetic resonance scan confirmed complete resolution of the hepatic haemangioendothelioma.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key wordsCandida albicans ; Premature ; Renal fungal balls ; Liposomal amphotericin B ; Fluconazole
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract At the age of 8 weeks, an extremely low birth weight infant (gestational age 26 0/7 weeks, birth weight 740 g) had non-obstructing bilateral renal fungal balls. Urine cultures had repeatedly grown Candida albicans. Combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin B intravenously and fluconazole orally was administered for 6 weeks. Monotherapy with fluconazole was then continued until complete resolution of the renal fungal balls. Conclusion Combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole was successful in eliminating non-obstructing bilateral renal fungal balls and obviated the need for surgical intervention.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words: CT – Infantile hepatic haemangioendothelioma – MRI – Ultrasonography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. A 4-week-old male infant was admitted to the hospital with acute gastrointestinal bleeding and marked coagulopathy secondary to vitamin K malabsorption in the presence of cholestasis. Physical examination revealed hepatomegaly and cutaneous haemangiomas. Ultrasonography, CT, and MRI demonstrated a multifocal vascular process and allowed the diagnosis of infantile hepatic haemangioendothelioma to be made without the use of more invasive diagnostic procedures. To avoid high-output congestive heart failure, the patient was treated with oral corticosteroids. After 5 months, rapid involution of the vascular malformations ensued. At age 2 years, a magnetic resonance scan confirmed complete resolution of the hepatic haemangioendothelioma.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Cavernous angioma ; Electrocorticography ; Epilepsy ; Intraoperative sonography ; Pediatrics ; Vascular malformation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Until recently intracranial cavernous angiomas were thought to be rare vascular malformations that usually presented in adulthood as an intracerebral hemorrhage, an expanding mass lesion, or with the new onset of seizures. Prior to the advent of computed tomography (CT), and more recently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), their diagnosis in childhood was extremely rare. However, the CT and MRI features of cavernous angioma are quite distinctive and allow early diagnosis and treatment. Advances in surgical techniques permit successful removal of these potentially devastating lesions and amelioration of the associated seizure disorder. Seven children with cerebral cavernous angiomas have been treated at the Children's Hospital Medical Center since 1980. Six children presented with seizures and one with an intracerebral hemorrhage. All had characteristic findings on CT and/or MRI and underwent surgical excision of symptomatic lesions. Intraoperative sonography, electrocorticography, and cortical mapping were used when indicated and were found to be helpful in the surgical management of these patients. Our experience suggests that symptomatic cerebral cavernous angiomas in children are not as rare as previously thought and that surgical treatment using modern neurosurgical techniques is both safe and appropriate and can be helpful in the management of associated seizures.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We studied Na+ and Ca2+ currents in glial cells during the development of the corpus callosum in situ. Glioblasts and oligodendrocytes from frontal brain slices of postnatal day (P) 3 to P18 mice were identified based on morphological and ultrastructural features after characterization of the currents with the patch-clamp technique. Slices from P3-P8 mice contained predominantly glioblasts with immature morphological features. These cells showed Na+ and Ca2+ currents, but the population with these currents decreased between P3 and P8. Na+ currents were blocked in Na+-free bathing solution and in the presence of tetrodotoxin, Ca2+ currents were only observed when a high concentration of extracellular Ba2+ was present. The cells from the corpus callosum of P10 – P18 mice predominantly had morphological features of oligodendrocytes. In these cells, which in some cases were shown to form myelin, neither Na+ nor Ca2+ currents were detected. To compare these in situ results with those from the electrophysiologically and immunocytochemically well-characterized cultured glial cells, we determined the expression pattern of stage-specific antigens in the corpus callosum in situ. The first O4 antigen-positive glial precursors were observed at P1, the earliest stage examined. The oligodendrocytic antigens O7 and O10 appeared at P6 and P14, respectively, and prominent labelling with the corresponding markers was seen at P12 and P18, respectively. Despite the existence of numerous mature, O10-positive oligodendrocytes at P18, which expressed Ca2+ channels in vitro, we failed to detect Ca2+ currents in situ at this stage.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The antiepileptic drug lamotrigine was described to exert its effects on neuronal excitability via voltage-gated sodium and calcium, as well as hyperpolarization-activated conductances. In order to define the effects of lamotrigine on the excitability of layer V pyramidal cells of the rat somatosensory cortex we performed patch-clamp recordings from the soma and dendrite of this major cortical output cell type in acute slices. Voltage-clamp experiments revealed the blockade of the persistent sodium current by 50–100 µm lamotrigine as well as by 50 µm of the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin. In somatic current-clamp studies lamotrigine, in a therapeutic concentration range, depolarizes the membrane potential reflecting the activation of the hyperpolarization-activated current. This depolarization reduces the rheobase and increases the spiking frequency at the onset of the spike train. For long depolarizing current pulses under lamotrigine, however, a use-dependent block of sodium channels reduces spiking frequency and spike amplitude. The depolarization due to 50–100 µm lamotrigine reduces additionally the critical frequency of back-propagating spikes necessary to elicit a dendritic calcium action potential. Ten to thirty micromolar lamotrigine, in contrast, did not change the critical frequency. Lamotrigine blocks long-lasting, high frequent spiking activity due to its use-dependent sodium channel block, while burst activity is not impaired due to a depolarizing shift of the membrane potential. This drug therefore dampens epileptic activity while leaving the somatodendritic association in layer V pyramidal cells intact.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Voltage-gated conductances on dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons participate in synaptic integration and output generation. We investigated the properties and the distribution of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) in this cell type using excised patches in acute slice preparations of rat somatosensory cortex. BK channels were characterized by their large conductance and sensitivity to the specific blockers paxilline and iberiotoxin. BK channels showed a pronounced calcium-dependence with a maximal opening probability of 0.69 at 10 µm and 0.42 at 3 µm free calcium. Their opening probability and transition time constants between open and closed states are voltage-dependent. At depolarized potentials, BK channel gating is described by two open and one closed states. Depolarization increases the opening probability due to a prolongation of the open time constant and a shortening of the closed time constant. Calcium-dependence and biophysical properties of somatic and dendritic BK channels were identical. The presence of BK channels on the apical dendrite of layer 5 pyramidal neurons was shown by immunofluorescence. Patch-clamp recordings revealed a homogeneous density of BK channels on the soma and along the apical dendrite up to 850 µm with a mean density of 1.9 channels per µm2. BK channels are expressed either isolated or in clusters containing up to four channels. This study shows the presence of BK channels on dendrites. Their activation might modulate the shape of sodium and calcium action potentials, their propagation along the dendrite, and thereby the electrotonic distance between the somatic and dendritic action potential initiation zones.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current microbiology 18 (1989), S. 275-276 
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Spores of two microorganisms,Bacillus subtilis (ATCC9372) andClostridium sporogenes (ATCC7955), were inactivated by exposure to oxygen gas plasma. Strips were inoculated with these microorganisms and exposed to gas plasmas at two different power settings, 50 and 200 watts, and for three exposure periods, 5, 30, and 60 min. Greater than 3.4 spore logarithmic reductions (SLR) for a 30-min exposure and greater than 3.5 SLR for a 60-min exposure were achieved in a 50-watt plasma for both microorganisms. Greater than 3.4 SLR was achieved for both microorganisms at 200 watts for all exposure periods. This study indicated oxygen gas plasma may be feasible for inactivation of microorganisms that are resistant to other sterilization methods.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Pediatric anesthesia 15 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A congenital laryngotracheo-oesophageal cleft is a rare airway malformation which results from incomplete separation of the larynx and trachea from the hypopharynx and oesophagus. Patients usually present with stridor, aspiration and cyanosis associated with feeding. For early diagnosis, a high index of suspicion is needed. Unless an appropriate diagnostic approach is taken, the diagnosis can be missed. The successful ventilation of a neonate with the Laryngeal Mask AirwayTM is described.
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