Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Auxin ; Cell wall ; Coleoptile ; Pectin ; Zea mays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Aiming to elucidate the possible involvement of pectins in auxin-mediated elongation growth the distribution of pectins in cell walls of maize coleoptiles was investigated. Antibodies against defined epitopes of pectin were used: JIM 5 recognizing pectin with a low degree of esterification, JIM 7 recognizing highly esterified pectin and 2F4 recognizing a pectin epitope induced by Ca2+. JIM 5 weakly labeled the outer third of the outer epidermal wall and the center of filled cell corners in the parenchyma. A similar labeling pattern was obtained with 2F4. In contrast, JIM 7 densely labeled the whole outer epidermal wall except the innermost layer, the middle lamellae, and the inner edges of open cell corners in the parenchyma. Enzymatic de-esterification with pectin methylesterase increased the labeling by JIM 5 and 2F4 substantially. A further increase of the labeling density by JIM 5 and 2F4 and an extension of the labeling over the whole outer epidermal wall could be observed after chemical de-esterification with alkali. This indicates that both methyl- and other esters exist in maize outer epidermal walls. Thus, in the growth-controlling outer epidermal wall a clear zonation of pectin fractions was observed: the outermost layer (about one third to one half of wall thickness) contains unesterified pectin epitopes, presumably cross-linked by Ca2+ extract. Tracer experiments with3H-myo-inositol showed rapid accumulation of tracer in all extractable pectin fractions and in a fraction tightly bound to the cell wall. A stimulatory effect of IAA on tracer incorporation could not be detected in any fraction. Summarizing the data a model of the pectin distribution in the cell walls of maize coleoptiles was developed and its implications for the mechanism of auxin-induced wall loosening are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Development and acclimation of energy transduction were studied in seedlings of Chenopodium rubrum L. ecotype selection 184 (50° 10′ N; 105° 35′ W) in response to photomorphogenic and photoperiodic treatments. Dark respiration and photosynthetic capacity [nmol O2 (pair of cotyledons)−1 h−1] were measured with an oxygen electrode. Changes in chloroplast ultrastructure were analyzed concomitantly. After germination, seedlings were grown at constant temperature either in darkness or in continuous light (white, red, far-red and blue) or were subjected to diurnal cycles of light/dark or changes in light quality. Dark respiration was low in far-red light treated seedlings. In red light treated seedlings dark respiration was high and the mean value did not depend on fluence rate or photoperiod. Blue light stimulated transitorily and modulated dark respiration in photoperiodic cycles. Photosynthetic capacity was reduced by far-red light and increased by red light. In response to blue light photosynthetic capacity increased, with indications of a requirement for continuous energy input. Phytochrome and a separate blue light receptor seemed to be involved. In continuous red light a clear cut circadian rhythm of dark respiration was observed. Blue light had a specific effect on chloroplast structure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Embryogenesis ; Lipid bodies ; Oleosomes ; Sinapis ; Spherosomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Electron microscopic and biochemical investigations of developing embryonic mustard cotyledons provided no evidence for the widely accepted hypothesis that oleosomes of fat-storing tissues originate from the endoplasmic reticulum and are surrounded by a unit- or half-unit membrane. In contrast, it was found that the first lipid droplets appear (about 12–14 d after pollination) in the ground cytoplasm near the surface of plastids. Subsequently these nascent lipid droplets, which lack any detectable boundary structure at this stage, become encircled by a cisterna of rough endoplasmic reticulum. At the same time an osmiophilic coat of about 3 nm thickness becomes detectable at the lipid/water interface. In the cotyledon cells of germinating seedlings a centrifugally moving front of fat degradation moves from the central vacuoles(s) towards the cell periphery, leaving behind collapsed coats of oleosomes which are depleted of their lipid contents (saccules). Although saccules appear tripartite in cross section, they are structurally different from endoplasmic reticulum membranes. The oleosome coats can be isolated from oleosome preparations by extracting lipids with organic solvents. The coat material is insoluble in detergents like Triton X-100 or deoxycholate and shows a tripartite, lamellar structure (similar to collapsed saccules) under the electron microscope. Upon dissolution with dodecylsulfate, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a polypeptide composition (9 major bands) which is qualitatively different from that of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Also the buoyant densities of defatted oleosome coats and defatted endoplasmic reticulum membranes are very different. It is concluded that oleosome lipids accumulate in the ground cytoplasm and are bounded by a lamellar structure originating de novo from proteinaceous elements synthesized by specific regions of the endoplasmic reticulum.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Aleurone bodies ; Embryogenesis ; Protein storage bodies ; Sinapis ; Storage protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An electron microscopic investigation of fine structural changes in post-meristematic cotyledon mesophyll cells during the period of storage protein accumulation (16–32 d after pollination) showed that the rough ER, the Golgi apparatus and the developing vacuome are intimately involved in the formation of storage protein bodies (aleurone bodies). At the onset of storage protein accumulation (16–18 d after pollination) storage protein-like material appears within Golgi vesicles and preformed vacuoles. At a later stage (24 d after pollination) similar material can also be detected within vesicles formed directly by the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is concluded that there are two routes for storage protein transport from its site of synthesis at the ER to its site of accumulation in the vacuome. The first route involves the participation of dictyosomes while the second route bypasses the Golgi apparatus. It appears that the normal pathways of membrane flow in the development of central vacuoles in post-meristematic cells are used to deposit the storage protein within the protein bodies. Thus, the protein body can be regarded as a transient stage in the process of vacuome development of these storage cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Carotenoid ; Chlorophyll ; Chloroplast senescence ; Phytochrome and plastid senescence ; Senescence (plastids) ; Sinapis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Changes in pigment contents and ultrastructure have followed in cotyledons of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings during dark-mediated senescence. The seedlings were kept in white light for 7 d, treated with 5 min long wavelength far-red light and then kept in darkness up to 14 d after sowing. Under these conditions the chloroplasts remain stable for 2 d before a sequential plastidal disintegration commences. The data indicate a selective breakdown of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein. Phytochrome retards the differential loss of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids and preserves the fine structure of chloroplasts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Chloroplast (photooxidative destruction) ; Herbicide (bleaching) ; Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ; Photomorphogenesis ; Restriction analysis ; Sinapis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings were grown in the presence of herbicides (Difunon, Norflurazon) which inhibit carotenoid synthesis without affecting development, in darkness or in continuous far-red light. In strong white light (12,000 lx) the cotyledons of the herbicide-treated seedlings did not contain normal chloroplasts, but only small chlorophyll-free rudiments whose internal structure had almost disappeared. The plastid marker enzyme NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was almost lacking. Plastid ribosomes and ribosomal RNAs were no longer detectable nor could synthesis of mature plastidal ribosomal RNAs be detected. Cytosolic ribosomes and rRNAs were not affected. Plastid DNA was apparently still intact as shown by restriction analysis. The appearance of marker enzymes of glyoxisomes, mitochondria and cytosol was not impaired while the level of marker enzymes of peroxisomes was drastically lowered. Accumulation of anthocyanin in mustard cotyledons was normal after a short, transient delay. Levels of representative enzymes of flavonoid biogenesis (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase) were somewhat increased rather than inhibited in the cotyledons of herbicide-treated, white-light-grown seedlings. The growth rate of hypocotyl and cotyledons was inhibited to the same extent in the herbicide-treated, white-light-grown seedling, although light inhibits growth of hypocotyls and promotes growth of cotyledons. Analysis of the data shows that photomorphogenesis of a herbicide-treated, white-light-grown seedling is normal, and is thus independent of plastid gene expression However, a ‘factor’ which coacts multiplicatively with phytochrome in determining the growth rate of the organs seems to originate from the plastids. Biogenesis of anthocyanin and synthesis of major enzymes of the flavonoid pathway are not affected adversely by a photooxidative elimination of plastid gene expression.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Chloroplast (photooxidation, proteins) ; mRNA (chloroplast proteins) ; Nitrate reductase ; Photooxidation (chloroplast) ; Sinapis (plastid photooxidation)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract It was inferred from previous findings that a plastid-derived factor (plastidic factor) is involved in the transcriptional control of nuclear genes coding for proteins destined for the chloroplast. Photooxidative damage to the plastid destroys the ability of the organelle to give off this factor. Cytosolic enzyme levels are not impaired if plastids are damaged, and morphogenesis of seedlings is normal. The only exception found so far is nitrate reductase, a cytosolic enzyme, which is regulated by the cellas if it were a plastidic protein. In the present study we have shown that the plastids in the mesophyll of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) cotyledons, damaged by 3 h photooxidation in red light (6.8 W·m-2) and then returned to darkness or to continuous, non-photooxidative far-red light (cFR), recover from photooxidative damage. The rate of recovery is stimulated by phytochrome (operationally, cFR). Since the cytosolic enzyme nitrate reductase is affected by the different treatments in principally the same way as the levels of plastidic enzymes, we conclude that it is recovery of the plastids' ability to give off the plastidic factor rather than structural recovery which leads to recovery of gene expression and protein (and chlorophyll) re-accumulation. The extent of recovery varied according to the enzyme and this variation could be explained by different plastidic-factor requirements for gene expression. This explanation was confirmed by measurements of translatable mRNAs. It was found that LHCP-gene expression (light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of photosystem II) is far more sensitive to photooxidative damage of the plastids than SSU-gene expression (small subunit of ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase). Correspondingly, recovery is expressed to a much greater extent in the latter than in the former case.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Auxin (coleoptile growth) ; Cell wall (auxin, grwoth-limiting protein) ; Protein synthesis (auxin) ; Zea (coleoptile growth)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The involvement of cell-wall polymer synthesis in auxin-mediated elongation of coleoptile segments from Zea mays L. was investigated with particular regard to the growth-limiting outer epidermis. There was no effect of indole acetic acid (IAA) on the incorporation of labeled glucose into the major polysaccharide wall fractions (cellulose, hemicellulose) within the first 2 h of IAA-induced growth. 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile inhibited cellulose synthesis strongly but had no effect on IAA-induced segment elongation even after a pretreatment period of 24 h, indicating that the growth response is independent of the apposition of new cellulose microfibrils at the epidermal cell wall. The incorporation of labeled leucine into total and cell-wall protein of the epidermis was promoted by IAA during the first 30 min of IAA-induced growth. Inhibition of IAA-induced growth by protein and RNA-synthesis inhibitors (cycloheximide, cordycepin) was accompanied by an inhibition of leucine incorporation into the epidermal cell wall during the first 30 min of induced growth but had no effect on the concomitant incorporation of monosaccharide precursors into the cellulose or hemicellulose fractions of this wall. It is concluded that at least one of the epidermal cell-wall proteins fulfills the criteria for a ‘growth-limiting protein’ induced by IAA at the onset of the growth response. In contrast, the synthesis of the polysaccharide wall fractions cellulose and hemicellulose, as well as their transport and integration into the growing epidermal wall, appears to be independent of growth-limiting protein and these processes are therefore no part of the mechanism of growth control by IAA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Carotenoids ; Chlorophylls ; Herbicides ; Phytochrome ; Plastid development ; Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Treatment of the mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedling with the herbicide SAN 9789 inhibits synthesis of colored carotenoids and interferes with the formation of plastid membrane lipids without affecting growth and morphogenesis significantly. In farred light, which is hardly absorbed by chlorophyll, development of plastid ultrastructure, synthesis of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase and synthesis of chlorophyll are not affected by SAN 9789. It is concluded that normal phytochrome actions on plastid structural development, protein and chlorophyll syntheses are not affected by the absence of carotenoids provided that there is no significant light absorption in chlorophyll. The findings show that the inhibition of synthesis of one set of plastid membrane components (the carotenoids) does not stop synthesis of other components such as chlorophyll and does not halt membrane assembly. Supplementary experiments with the closely related compound SAN 9785, which affects the amount and composition of plastid lipids but not carotenoid and chlorophyll syntheses, suggest that the effect of the herbicide SAN 9789 is due exclusively to its inhibition of synthesis of colored carotenoids. In the presence of SAN 9789 white or red light at high fluence rate causes photodestruction of chlorophyll and ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase and photodecomposition of thylakoids. These effects are interpreted as resulting exclusively from the self-photooxidation and photosensitizing action of chlorophyll once the protection by carotenoids of chlorophyll against self- and sensitized photooxidation is lost.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Auxin (unilateral growth) ; Gravitropism (coleoptile, hypocotyl) ; Helianthus (microtubules in tropisms) ; Microtubule (cell extension) ; Phototropism (coleoptile, hypocotyl) ; Zea (microtubules in tropisms)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) controls the orientation of cortical microtubes (MT) at the outer wall of the outer epidermis of growing maize coleoptiles (Bergfeld, R., Speth, V., Schopfer, P., 1988, Bot. Acta101, 57–67). A detailed time course of MT reorientation, determined by labeling MT with fluorescent antibodies, revealed that the auxin-mediated movement of MT from the longitudinal to the transverse direction starts after less than 15 min and is completed after 60 min. This response was used for a critical test of the functional involvement of auxin in tropic curvature. It was found that phototropic (first phototropic curvature) as well as gravitropic bending are correlated with a change of MT orientation from transverse to longitudinal at the slowergrowing organ flank whereas the transverse MT orientation is maintained (or even augmented) at the faster-growing organ flank. These directional changes are confined to the MT subjacent to the outer epidermal wall. The same basic results were obtained with sunflower hypocotyls subjected to phototropic or gravitropic stimulation. It is concluded that auxin is, in fact, involved in asymmetric growth leading to tropic curvature. However, our results do not allow us to discriminate between an uneven distribution of endogenous auxin or an even distribution of auxin, the activity of which is modulated by an unevenly distributed inhibitor of auxin action.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...