Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) may induce long-term toxicity to the bone marrow (BM). The aim of this study was to analyze persistent hematologic dysfunction (PHD) after PRRT with 177 Lu-DOTATATE in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP NETs). Methods: The incidence and course of PHD were analyzed in 274 GEP NET patients from a group of 367 patients with somatostatin receptor–positive tumors. PHD was defined as diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), MDS/MPN, or otherwise unexplained cytopenia (for 〉6 mo). Using data from The Netherlands Cancer Registry, the expected number of hematopoietic neoplasms (MDS, AML, MPN, and MDS/MPN) was calculated and adjusted for sex, age, and follow-up period. The following risk factors were assessed: sex, age over 70 y, bone metastasis, prior chemotherapy, prior external-beam radiotherapy, uptake on the [ 111 In-DTPA 0 ]octreotide scan, tumor load, grade 3–4 hematologic toxicity during treatment, estimated absorbed BM dose, elevated plasma chromogranin A level, baseline blood counts, and renal function. Results: Eleven (4%) of the 274 patients had PHD after treatment with 177 Lu-DOTATATE: 8 patients (2.9%) developed a hematopoietic neoplasm (4 MDS, 1 AML, 1 MPN, and 2 MDS/MPN) and 3 patients (1.1%) developed BM failure characterized by cytopenia and BM aplasia. The median latency period at diagnosis (or first suspicion of a PHD) was 41 mo (range, 15–84 mo). The expected number of hematopoietic neoplasms based on The Netherlands Cancer Registry data was 3.0, resulting in a relative risk of 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 0.7–10.0). No risk factors for PHD could be identified for the GEP NET patients, not even bone metastasis or estimated BM dose. Seven patients with PHD developed anemia in combination with a rise in mean corpuscular volume. Conclusion: The prevalence of PHD after PRRT with 177 Lu-DOTATATE was 4% in our patient population. The median time at which PHD developed was 41 mo after the first PRRT cycle. The relative risk for developing a hematopoietic neoplasm was 2.7. No risk factors were found for the development of PHD in GEP NET patients.