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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; MECHANISM ; COPY-NUMBER ; IMPORTIN-ALPHA ; HUMAN HOMOLOG ; SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE ; protein expression ; TARGET GENES ; SEGREGATION GENE CSE1
    Abstract: Proteins of the karyopherin superfamily including importins and exportins represent an essential part of the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery. However, the functional relevance and regulation of karyopherins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood. Here we identified cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS, exportin-2) and its transport substrate importin-alpha1 (imp-alpha1) among significantly up-regulated transport factor genes in HCC. Disruption of the CAS/imp-alpha1 transport cycle by RNAi in HCC cell lines resulted in decreased tumor cell growth and increased apoptosis. The apoptotic phenotype upon CAS depletion could be recapitulated by direct knockdown of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and partially reverted by XIAP overexpression. In addition, XIAP and CAS mRNA expression levels were correlated in HCC patient samples (r=0.463; P〈0.01), supporting the in vivo relevance of our findings. Furthermore, quantitative mass spectrometry analyses of murine HCC samples (p53-/- versus p53+/+) indicated higher protein expression of CAS and imp-alpha1 in p53-/- tumors. Consistent with a role of p53 in regulating the CAS/imp-alpha1 transport cycle, we observed that both transport factors were repressed upon p53 induction in a p21-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The CAS/imp-alpha1 transport cycle is linked to XIAP and is required to maintain tumor cell survival in HCC. Moreover, CAS and imp-alpha1 are targets of p53-mediated repression, which represents a novel aspect of p53's ability to control tumor cell growth in hepatocarcinogenesis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24799195
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  61. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie (DGNC) im Rahmen der Neurowoche 2010; 20100921-20100925; Mannheim; DOCP1710 /20100916/
    Publication Date: 2010-09-17
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; SURVIVAL ; carcinoma ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; NF-KAPPA-B ; prognosis ; ASSOCIATION ; TUMOR PROGRESSION ; METASTASIS ; PROGNOSTIC FACTORS ; FAS LIGAND EXPRESSION ; APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND ; ONCOLOGY ; CD95-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; death receptor ; renal cell cancer ; (APO-1/FAS)-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; CD95 (Fas/APO1) ; DECOY RECEPTOR-3 ; FREQUENT LOSS
    Abstract: CD95 (Fas/APO1) is one of the best known members of the death receptor family which can either mediate apoptosis or activate tumor-promoting pathways. Using a tissue microarray we investigated the association between the expression of CD95 and prognosis in 617 patients with renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). CD95 was expressed in the vast majority of RCCs. High CD95 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis and correlated negatively with disease-specific survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed CD95 expression as an independent prognostic factor. In conclusion, high CD95 expression is a negative independent prognostic factor in RCCs which could be used to identify high-risk patients with a poor clinical prognosis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21196076
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  • 4
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; DISEASE ; RISK ; GENES ; GENOME ; SEQUENCE ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTORS ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; 15Q25.1
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies have highlighted three major lung cancer susceptibility regions at 15q25.1, 5p15.33 and 6p21.33. To gain insight into the possible mechanistic relevance of the genes in these regions, we investigated the regulation of candidate susceptibility gene expression by epigenetic alterations in healthy and lung tumor tissues. For genes up or downregulated in lung tumors, the influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation was investigated and in vitro studies were performed. We analyzed 394 CpG units within 19 CpG islands in the susceptibility regions in a screening set of 34 patients. Significant findings were validated in an independent patient set (n=50) with available DNA and RNA. The most consistent overall DNA methylation difference between tumor and adjacent normal tissue on 15q25 was tumor hypomethylation in the promoter region of CHRNB4 with a median difference of 8% (P〈0.001), which resulted in overexpression of the transcript in tumors (P〈0.001). Confirming previous studies, we also found hypermethylation in CHRNA3 and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) with significant expression changes. Decitabine treatment of H1299 cells resulted in reduced methylation levels in gene promoters, elevated transcript levels of CHRNB4 and CHRNA3, and a slight downregulation of TERT demonstrating epigenetic regulation of lung cancer cells. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs421629 on 5p15.33 and rs1948, rs660652, rs8040868 and rs2036527 on 15q25.1, previously identified as lung cancer risk or nicotine-addiction modifiers, were associated with tumor DNA methylation levels in the promoters of TERT and CHRNB4 (P〈0.001), respectively, in two independent sample sets (n=82; n=150). In addition, CHRNB4 knockdown in two different cell lines (A549 and H1299) resulted in reduced proliferation (P(A549)〈0.05;P(H1299)〈0.001) and propensity to form colonies in H1299 cells. These results suggest epigenetic deregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (nAChR) genes which in the case of CHRNB4 is strongly associated with genetic lung cancer susceptibility variants and a functional impact on tumorigenic potential.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 September 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.344.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22945651
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  • 5
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; HEAD ; inflammation ; TUMOR-GROWTH ; BLOCKADE ; IMMUNE ; calprotectin ; ENDPRODUCTS RAGE ; S100A8/S100A9
    Abstract: Aberrant expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligands, such as S100/Calgranulins, has been demonstrated in squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. However, the question whether RAGE signaling is causally linked with neoplastic transformation of keratinocytes in mucosal epithelia has not been addressed so far. We used the well-established mouse model of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) induced tumorigenesis to investigate tumor development in control and RAGE-deficient (Rage(-/-)) animals. Although 4-NQO induced lesions of the tongue and the esophagus showed strong induction of the RAGE ligands S100a8 and S100a9, we did not observe any significant difference in tumor incidence or multiplicity between control and Rage(-/-) mice. Furthermore, detailed analysis of tumor sections by histological and immunohistochemical staining revealed no difference in either the size or histological architecture of dysplastic lesions, tumor cell proliferation, or the number of inflammatory immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Finally, we detected induced transcript and protein levels of the Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) in 4-NQO induced lesions, suggesting that signaling via the S100-Tlr4 axis may compensate for the lack of RAGE in early stages of tumor development. Our data demonstrate that RAGE is dispensable in the onset of genotoxic induced oral and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and provide evidence for an alternative pathway of S100-Calgranulin signaling via Tlr4.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23712426
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  • 6
    Keywords: EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; CUTANEOUS MALIGNANT-MELANOMA ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; COMMON VARIANTS ; IDENTIFIES 5 ; CDKN2A GENE ; ANRIL
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The influence of variants at the 9p21 locus on melanoma risk has been reported through investigation of CDKN2A variants through candidate gene approach as well as by genome wide association studies (GWAS). METHODS: In the present study we genotyped, 25 SNPs that tag 273 variants on chromosome 9p21 in 837 melanoma cases and 1154 controls from Spain. Ten SNPs were selected based on previous associations, reported in GWAS, with either melanocytic nevi or melanoma risk or both. The other 15 SNPs were selected to fine map the CDKN2A gene region. RESULTS: All the 10 variants selected from the GWAS showed statistically significant association with melanoma risk. Statistically significant association with melanoma risk was also observed for the carriers of the variant T-allele of rs3088440 (540 C〉T) at the 3' UTR of CDKN2A gene with an OR 1.52 (95% CI 1.14-2.04). Interaction analysis between risk associated polymorphisms and previously genotyped MC1R variants, in the present study, did not show any statistically significant association. Statistical significant association was observed for the interaction between phototypes and the rs10811629 (located in intron 5 of MTAP). The strongest association was observed between the homozygous carrier of the A-allele and phototype II with an OR of 15.93 (95% CI 5.34-47.54). CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirmed the association of different variants at chromosome 9p21 with melanoma risk and we also found an association of a variant with skin phototypes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23816148
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  • 7
    Keywords: IN-SITU ; COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION ; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; UTERINE CERVIX ; RECURRENT PATTERN ; DNA COPY NUMBER ; EXPRESSION PROFILES ; TELOMERASE RNA GENE ; INVASIVE CANCER
    Abstract: Background: Overexpression of the human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 is necessary for the development of distinct lower genital tract cancers. However, secondary cellular genomic alterations are mandatory to promote progression of HPV-induced premalignant stages. We aimed at identifying the chromosomal regions most frequently gained and lost and the disease stage at which the latter occurs. These regions might be relevant for carcinogenesis and could serve as diagnostic markers to identify premalignant lesions with high progression risk towards invasive cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of studies listed in PubMed that analysed chromosomal copy number alterations by comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) in HPV-positive and -negative cancers or premalignant lesions of the anogenital tract (cervix, anus, vagina, penis and vulva). Findings: Data were extracted and analysed from 32 studies. The most common alterations in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (12 studies, 293 samples) were gains at 3q with a rate of 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-0.70), losses at 3p (0.36, 95%CI 0.27-0.48) and losses at 11q (0.33, 95%CI 0.26-0.43). Gains at 3q were particularly frequent in HPV16-positive cervical SCC (0.84, 95%CI 0.78-0.90). Also more than one quarter of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) harboured gains of 3q (0.27, 95%CI 0.20-0.36), but the rate in low grade CIN was low (0.02, 95%CI 0.00-0.09). For HPV-associated vulvar SCC (four studies, 30 samples) the same common alterations as in cervical SCC were reported. Studies on non-cervical and non-vulvar SCC and premalignant lesions of the lower genital tract are scarce. Interpretation: 3q gains were most frequently found in HPV16-positive cervical SCC. The results suggest the selection of HPV-transformed cell clones harbouring 3q gains in high grade premalignant lesions, while alterations in low grade lesions are rare.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24054023
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  • 8
    Keywords: MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY ; HER2 ; LAPATINIB PLUS CAPECITABINE ; ANTIBODY-DRUG CONJUGATE ; TRASTUZUMAB EMTANSINE
    Abstract: AIM: To compare results of trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) treatment in our clinical practice with data from phase III clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all 23 patients with metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer who were started on T-DM1 until April 2014 was performed. RESULTS: Four patients (17.4%) received T-DM1 as first-line, three (13.0%) as second-line, six (26.0%) as third-line, and 10 (43.5%) as fifth- or further-line therapy. Overall, the response rate (ORR) was 26.0%, disease control rate 78.3% and median progression-free survival (PFS) 8.4 months. The only toxicities of grade 3 or more were fatigue (21.7%), thrombocytopenia (4.3%) and elevation of liver enzymes (8.7%). ORR and PFS were similar to the TH3RESA and EMILIA trials. Compared to the EMILIA study, we recorded higher rates of newly-diagnosed cerebral metastasis and cerebral progression in patients with stable peripheral metastases. CONCLUSION: T-DM1 is effective and well-tolerated even in intensively pre-treated patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26254411
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  • 9
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Brain metastases (BMs) are the most common malignant brain tumors in adults. Despite multimodal treatment options such as microsurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, prognosis still remains very poor. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes the most common source of brain metastases. In this study, prognostic factors in this patient population were identified through an in-depth analysis of clinical parameters of patients with BMs from NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data of 114 NSCLC cancer patients who underwent surgery for BMs at the University Hospital Heidelberg were retrospectively reviewed for age, gender, type of treatment, time course of the disease, presence of neurologic symptoms, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), smoking history, presence of extracranial metastases at initial diagnosis of NSCLC, number, location and size of brain metastases. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed using the Log-rank test and Cox' proportional hazard model, respectively. RESULTS: Median survival time from surgery for BMs was 11.2 months. 18.4% (21 of 114) patients were long-term survivors (〉24 months; range 26.3-75.1 months). Age, gender, size and number of intracranial metastases were not significantly associated with patient survival. Univariate analysis identified complete resection, postoperative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and a preoperative KPS of 〉80% as positive prognostic factors. Infratentorial location and presence of extracranial metastases were shown to be negative prognostic factors. Surgery for the primary tumor was associated with a superior patient outcome both in univariate and multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Our data strongly suggest that surgical treatment of the primary tumor and complete resection of brain metastases in NSCLC patients followed by WBRT improve survival. Moreover, long-term survivors (〉2 years) were more frequent than previously reported.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26816105
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  • 10
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: To date, standardized strategies for the treatment of recurrent glioma are lacking. Chemotherapy with the alkylating agent BCNU (1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-urea) is a therapeutic option even though its efficacy and safety, particularly the risk of pulmonary fibrosis, remains controversial. To address these issues, we performed a retrospective analysis on clinical outcome and side effects of BCNU-based chemotherapy in recurrent glioma. METHODS: Survival data of 34 mostly chemotherapy-naive glioblastoma patients treated with BCNU at 1st relapse were compared to 29 untreated control patients, employing a multiple Cox regression model which considered known prognostic factors including MGMT promoter hypermethylation. Additionally, medical records of 163 patients treated with BCNU for recurrent glioma WHO grade II to IV were retrospectively evaluated for BCNU-related side effects classified according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 2.0. RESULTS: In recurrent glioblastoma, multiple regression survival analysis revealed a significant benefit of BCNU-based chemotherapy on survival after relapse (p = 0.02; HR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.26-0.89) independent of known clinical and molecular prognostic factors. Exploratory analyses suggested that survival benefit was most pronounced in MGMT-hypermethylated, BCNU-treated patients. Moreover, BCNU was well tolerated by 46% of the 163 patients analyzed for side effects; otherwise, predominantly mild side effects occurred (CTCAE I/II; 45%). Severe side effects CTCAE III/IV were observed in 9% of patients including severe hematotoxicity, thromboembolism, intracranial hemorrhage and injection site reaction requiring surgical intervention. One patient presented with a clinically apparent pulmonary fibrosis CTCAE IV requiring temporary mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: In this study, BCNU was rarely associated with severe side effects, particularly pulmonary toxicity, and, in case of recurrent glioblastoma, even conferred a favorable outcome. Therefore BCNU appears to be an appropriate alternative to other nitrosoureas although the efficacy against newer drugs needs further evaluation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26865253
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