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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Lead ; Lead in blood-protoporphyrin in erythrocytes ; ALAD ; Urinary ALA ; Urinary coproporphyrin ; Validity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relationships between certain indicators of internal dose and of biological effect were studied in 93 adult women with varying degrees of exposure to lead (PbB levels ranging from 8 to 74 μg/ 100 ml). The results were compared with those obtained in a group of 95 males with more of less similar exposure. In both groups a good correlation was found between PbB and ALAD, EP, CPU taken singularly and the trend of the indicators of effect, depending on PbB levels, was similar: the decrease in ALAD values was already clear at PbB levels which do not cause an elevation of EP and the erythrocyte metabolite increased earlier than CPU. Considering the same levels of internal lead load (measured by both PbB and PbU-EDTA) in women, EP values were higher than in the men. No significant difference was established between the two sexes regarding ALAD and CPU values, when considered at the same PbB levels. Validity of ALAD and EP in the females, as already shown in our previous studies on males, was moderate in predicting PbB levels ⩾ 40 μg/100 ml, while it clearly improved at PbB levels ⩾ 50–60 μg/ 100 ml. This indicates that for screening women of child-bearing age the two indicators of effect must be used with caution, since a value of 40 μg/100 ml has been proposed as the „permissible” PbB limit.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Lead ; Protoporphyrin in erythrocytes ; Lead in blood ; Lead in urine ; Chelatable lead ; Correlation ; Nonlinear regression ; Validity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relationship between FEP and the indicators of an internal dose of lead (PbB, PbU, PbU-EDTA) was considered in a group of adult male subjects with varying lead exposure, whose PbB values ranged from 15 – 150 μg/100 ml; a highly significant correlation was found between FEP and PbB, PbU, and PbU-EDTA (r = 0.904; r = 0.889; r = 0.894, respectively). The regression curves representing the relationship between the erythrocyte metabolite and the indicators of internal dose are uniform and are of nonlinear (logistic) type. In the first stage, within the range of normal values (up to 46 μg/100 ml RBC), FEP increases moderately with the rise of internal dose; subsequently it increases exponentially and tends finally to an asymptotic value in the range 250 – 300 μg/100 ml RBC. The data obtained in our investigation suggest that FEP is a useful test to assess metabolic damage in adult subjects arising from an “abnormal” lead absorption and to evaluate the amount of “active deposit” of the metal present in the body. Validity analysis showed that the erythrocyte metabolite can reliably be used as a screening test for monitoring occupationally exposed subjects and can also be applied in general population studies, since FEP has a good validity in the PbB range of 40 – 70 μg/100 and in the PbU-EDTA range of 500 – 2000 μg/24 h.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Lead ; Lead in blood ; Protoporphyrin in erythrocytes ; Erythrocyte ALAD ; Urinary ALA ; Urinary coproporphyrin ; Correlation ; Regression ; Validity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In previous research we established that FEP is a suitable and valid test for evaluating the metabolic damage caused by lead absorption. In this study, in the same sample consisting of adult male subjects with PbB levels ranging from 15 to 150 μg/100 ml, we examined the relationship existing between PbB and the other indicators of effect so as to compare their behavior with that of FEP and establish whether there is a field of application where the erythrocyte metabolite is to be preferred. FEP and ALAD displayed a very much better correlation with PbB than the urinary tests (ALAU and CPU). The decrease in ALAD values is already clear at PbB levels which do not cause an elevation of FEP; on the other hand, when the enzyme is markedly inhibited, the erythrocyte metabolite is elevated further with the increase in the internal lead load. FEP increases earlier compared to ALAU and CPU; nevertheless, the urinary metabolites undergo increasing elevations at PbB levels higher than 90 μg/100 ml when the FEP values have become stable. We confirmed that FEP possesses good predictive validity at PbB levels of 60 and 70 μg/100 ml; for such PbB levels, also ALAD, measured with the European Standardized Method, displayed high validity. Validity of the urinary metabolites was rather modest. FEP was, moreover, well correlated also with other indicators, suggesting that the erythrocyte metabolite may be used to predict both dose and effect.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Lead ; Current and past exposure ; Protoporphyrin in erythrocytes Lead in blood ; Lead in urine ; Chelatable lead ; Correlation ; Non-linear regresssion ; Validity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relationship between FEP and the indicators of dose (PbB, PbU, PbU-EDTA) was examined in a group of male subjects who had left lead-exposing jobs more than 12 months previously. In these subjects, FEP and PbB and FEP and PbU were correlated to a distinctly lower degree compared to previous findings in currently exposed subjects, although the correlations were still statistically significant. In the previously exposed subjects the erythrocyte metabolite displayed definitely higher values than those found in currently exposed subjects at the same PbB or PbU levels. A very close correlation was found between FEP and PbU-EDTA, as was found in exposed subjects. The regression curve assumed an identical profile in the two situations. From these results it may be concluded that FEP persists at high levels for a long time after cessation of exposure due to a direct inhibition of heme synthetase caused by lead released from the tissue deposits. It should be noted that FEP proved to be a valid test for predicting the amount of lead storage, even a long time after cessation of exposure.
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