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  • 1
    ISSN: 0303-7207
    Keywords: Adipocyte ; Gene expression ; Insulin
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The role of the piriform cortex (PC) in olfactory information processing remains mainly unknown. Indeed, until recently, only a few studies have investigated the response of PC neurons to odours and these studies did not take into account the functional heterogeneity of the PC previously described using an electrical stimulation paradigm. In this experiment, extracellular activity in response to odour was recorded in urethane anaesthetized rats in the different parts of the cortex ranging from anterior to posterior. A large percentage of cortical cells were silent at rest, and this percentage increased from anterior to posterior. Analysis of odour evoked activity revealed a large percentage of nonresponsive cells that increased from anterior to posterior. Cell activity was largely synchronized with breathing and different temporal patterns were observed. The anterior PC was characterized by odour-evoked responses phase-locked with the inhalation-exhalation transition period. By contrast, activity in the posterior PC was mainly phase-locked with inhalation or exhalation. These data confirm the spatial functional heterogeneity previously reported in the PC. Functional anatomy of the PC suggests that activity in the anterior PC can be mainly driven by afferent activity coming from the OB whereas posterior cells were certainly entrained by more complex mechanisms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Collagen ; Larynx ; Vocal cord paralysis ; Rehabilitation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In 1962, Arnold used injectable Teflon to reintroduce Brünings' technique for rehabilitating the paralysed vocal cord. Although Teflon would not appear to be carcinogenic, the technique is not entirely trouble-free. Injectable collagen as a biological implant seems to be an attractive alternative since it is a component part of the extracellular protein matrix. In actual clinical use, the collagen is easily injectable, is well-tolerated by patients, and is only subject to limited resorption. It also undergoes some transformation into living connective tissue with neovascularization. Our study was carried out on 14 patients: 13 had vocal cord paralyses from various causes and 1 had vocal cord atrophy as a sequel to traumatic injury. The therapeutic indication for correction in all of these patients was dysphonia for which speech therapy had failed to produce an adequate result. One patient was found to suffer from symptomatic aspiration as well. The actual technique of surgery involved the injection of a mean quantity of 1.5 cc collagen into the submucosal tissue of the affected cord during direct laryngoscopy. Postoperatively, all of our patients showed improved dysphonia without secondary effects occurring from the collagen. We also found lessened aspiration in our patient so affected. Our period of follow-up to date ranges from 3–12 months.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Key words Acclimatization ; Bioreactor ; Coffee ; Somatic embryogenesis ; Plant regeneration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The effect of germination conditions on the morphology of Coffea arabica L. somatic embryos mass-produced in a 1-l temporary immersion bioreactor (RITA®) was studied with emphasis on direct sowing in soil. Using germinated embryos, direct sowing resulted in a highly successful conversion of embryos into plants. A culture density above 1600 embryos per 1-l bioreactor positively affected embryo morphology by causing higher embryonic axis elongation (+4–5 mm). At this density, the addition of a high concentration of sucrose (234 mM) 2 weeks before sowing promoted an increase in effective plant conversion in soil (78%) and a vigorous vegetative growth of the resulting plants. Furthermore, direct sowing reduced handling time to 13% and shelving area requirements to 6.3% of the values obtained by conventional acclimatization of plants developed on gel media.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Coffea arabica ; Introgression ; Genetic diversity ; Alien gene transfer ; AFLP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Nineteen arabica coffee introgression lines (BC1F4) and two accessions derived from a spontaneous interspecific cross (i.e. Timor Hybrid) between Coffea arabica (2n=4x=44) and C. canephora (2n=2x=22) were analysed for the introgression of C. canephora genetic material. The Timor Hybrid-derived genotypes were evaluated by AFLP, using 42 different primer combinations, and compared to 23 accessions of C. arabica and 8 accessions of C. canephora. A total of 1062 polymorphic fragments were scored among the 52 accessions analysed. One hundred and seventy-eight markers consisting of 109 additional bands (i.e. introgressed markers) and 69 missing bands distinguished the group composed of the Timor Hybrid-derived genotypes from the accessions of C. arabica. AFLP therefore seemed to be an extremely efficient technique for DNA marker generation in coffee as well as for the detection of introgression in C. arabica. The genetic diversity observed in the Timor Hybrid-derived genotypes appeared to be approximately double that in C. arabica. Although representing only a small proportion of the genetic diversity available in C. canephora, the Timor Hybrid obviously constitutes a considerable source of genetic diversity for arabica breeding. Analysis of genetic relationships among the Timor Hybrid-derived genotypes suggested that introgression was not restricted to chromosome substitution but also involved chromosome recombinations. Furthermore, the Timor Hybrid-derived genotypes varied considerably in the number of AFLP markers attributable to introgression. In this way, the introgressed markers identified in the analysed arabica coffee introgressed genotypes were estimated to represent from 9% to 29% of the C. canephora genome. Nevertheless, the amount of alien genetic material in the introgression arabica lines remains substantial and should justify the development of adapted breeding strategies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: gene expression ; differentiation ; adipose cell ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and pOb24 mRNAs are known to be early markers of adipose cell differentiation. Comparative studies of the expression of pOb24 and LPL genes during adipose conversion of Ob1771 preadipocyte cells and in mouse adipose tissue have shown the following: (1) the expression of both genes takes place at confluence; this event can also be triggered by growth arrest of exponentially growing cells at the G1/S stage of the cell cycle; (2) In contrast to glycerol-3°phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA, the emergence of pOb24 and lipoprotein lipase mRNAs requires neither growth hormone or tri-iodothyronine as obligatory hormones nor insulin as a modulating hormone; (3) in mouse adipose tissue, pOb24 mRNA is present at a high level in stromal-vascular cells and at a low level in mature adipocytes, and in contrast LPL mRNAs are preferentially expressed in mature adipocytes. Thus, these two genes do not appear to be regulated in a similar manner, as also shown by the differential inhibition of their expression by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β ).
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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