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  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Adult Long–Evans male rats sustained injections of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the fimbria–fornix (2.5 µg/side) and the cingular bundle (1.5 µg/side) and/or to intraseptal injections of 192 IgG-saporin (0.4 µg/side) in order to deprive the hippocampus of its serotonergic and cholinergic innervations, respectively. Sham-operated rats were used as controls. The rats were tested for locomotor activity (postoperative days 18, 42 and 65), spontaneous T-maze alternation (days 20–29), beam-walking sensorimotor (days 34–38), water maze (days 53–64) and radial maze (days 80–133) performances. The cholinergic lesions, which decreased the hippocampal concentration of ACh by about 65%, induced nocturnal hyperlocomotion, reduced T-maze alternation, impaired reference-memory in the water maze and working-memory in the radial maze, but had no effect on beam-walking scores and working-memory in the water maze. The serotonergic lesions, which decreased the serotonergic innervation of the hippocampus by about 55%, failed to induce any behavioural deficit. In the group of rats given combined lesions, all deficits produced by the cholinergic lesions were observed, but the nocturnal hyperlocomotion and the working-memory deficits in the radial maze were attenuated significantly. These results suggest that attenuation of the serotonergic tone in the hippocampus may compensate for some dysfunctions subsequent to the loss of cholinergic hippocampal inputs. This observation is in close concordance with data showing that a reduction of the serotonergic tone, by pharmacological activation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors on raphe neurons, attenuates the cognitive disturbances produced by the intrahippocampal infusion of the antimuscarinic drug, scopolamine. This work has been presented previously [Serotonin Club/Brain Research Bulletin conference, Serotonin: From Molecule to the Clinic (satellite to the Society for Neuroscience Meeting, New Orleans, USA, November 2–3, 2000)].
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-08
    Description: Peptides represent a promising source of new medicines, but improved technologies are needed to facilitate discovery and optimization campaigns. In particular, longer peptides with multiple disulfide bridges are challenging to produce, and producing large numbers of structurally related variants is dissuasively costly and time-consuming. The principal cost and time drivers are the multiple column chromatography purification steps that are used during the multistep chemical synthesis procedure, which involves both ligation and oxidative refolding steps. In this study, we developed a method for multiplex parallel synthesis of complex peptide analogs in which the structurally variant region of the molecule is produced as a small peptide on a 384-well synthesizer with subsequent ligation to the longer, structurally invariant region and oxidative refolding carried out in-well without any column purification steps. To test the method, we used a panel of 96 analogs of the chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted)/CCL5 (69 residues, two disulfide bridges), which had been synthesized using standard approaches and characterized pharmacologically in an earlier study. Although, as expected, the multiplex method generated chemokine analogs of lower purity than those produced in the original study, it was nonetheless possible to closely match the pharmacological attributes (anti-HIV potency, capacity to elicit G protein signaling, and capacity to elicit intracellular receptor sequestration) of each chemokine analog to reference data from the earlier study. This rapid, low-cost approach has the potential to support discovery and optimization campaigns based on analogs of other chemokines as well as those of other complex peptide and small protein targets of a similar size.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9258
    Electronic ISSN: 1083-351X
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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