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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract It was demonstrated that a mechanical harvesting regime can influence the species composition of ditch vegetation at the community level. This effect, however, was very small compared with those of other factors such as the between-site and the within-site spatial variation, and several soil and water quality parameters. Cutting in November had the largest effect, in that it caused the greatest extremes in species cover. The vegetation was composed of 136 plant species. The semi-aquatic and aquatic species were less numerous than the terrestrial ones (52 versus 84). The total number per vegetation type and site ranged from 5 to 49; that of persistent plant species, from 4 to 22. Only 16% of the species was significantly influenced by the mechanical harvesting regime. The significant effects of the mechanical harvesting regime on plant species were related to plant-inherent factors. Mechanical harvesting repeated within a year, on one hand, opened up the vegetation, 1) freeing sites for colonization of new species, 2) improving the light climate for seedlings which had already colonized; on the other hand, it exhausted (carbohydrate) reserves of solitary species. Mechanical harvesting once a year in November had a contrasting effect in that it caused suffocation of the shore vegetation in spring by the not yet decomposed plant material harvested in autumn. The highest species richness was attained for the aquatic vegetation: on sand by cutting three times per year (in May, July and September), and on peat by cutting once a year (in November); and for the shore vegetation: on sand once a year (in May) and two times per year (in May and July), and on peat once a year (in May or November).
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5125
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Conservation ; Management ; Hydrological compartmentation ; Groundwater level ; Species diversity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The impact of hydrological manipulation of an unfertilised, Dutch peat grassland area on plant species composition on ditch banks and in ditchwater was studied. The hydrological manipulation involved raising the groundwater level by admitting nutrient-poor, Ca-rich groundwater in one compartment, and by retaining precipitation in another compartment. A third compartment served as control. The plant species composition showed significant correlations with the following hydrochemical parameters: in bank vegetation with K+ concentration, and winter and summer groundwater levels, water depth and elevation; in aquatic vegetation with pH, the concentrations of Cl- organic-C and NH4 + water temperature and elevation. The number of terrestrial plant species increased after compartmentation from 97 to 122; 16 submerged and floating species were found. Most ‘new’ terrestrial species probably emerged in response to cessation of fertilization and biomass removal, since they showed no preference for any compartment. Five species showed preference for the groundwater compartment and two for the rainwater compartment. Of the ‘new’ terrestrial plants, seven were relatively rare: Carex panicea, C. oederi, C. pallescens, C. vesicaria, Galium uliginosum, Juncus acutiflorus and Stellaria uliginosa. Of the aquatic plants, eight were relatively rare: Chara globularis, two Callitriche spp., four potamogetonaceae and Ranunculus circinatus. This study indicates that hydrological manipulation of grassland systems in which fertilisation has ceased has profound effects on the vegetation in the ditches of these systems. Bank vegetation responds more slowly and to other hydrochemical factors than aquatic vegetation. Short-term responses in terms of increase in diversity of vegetation pattern and species richness are promising. Long-term responses are not yet known.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Aquatic ecology 21 (1987), S. 235-246 
    ISSN: 1573-5125
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: aquatic macrophytes ; eutrophication ; lake restoration ; phosphorus ; aerial photography ; shallow lakes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The potential importance of the six major emergent and floating-leaved macrophyte species in recycling of sediment phosphorus in the Loosdrecht lakes was studied. Representative plant samples were collected at the time of maximum biomass, and analysed for biomass and carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Species cover was determined by aerial photography. Total cover in the seven lakes studied ranged between 2 and 26 percent. For the four main species, biomass per unit area increased with lake trophic status. Consistent differences in C, N and P contents per unit biomass were not observed. Although cover values were small, significant amounts of C, N and P were contained in the macrophytes when compared with maximum sestonic content. Potential P loads from macrophyte decay were calculated. In Lake Loosdrecht, the P load represented 15 percent of current external P inputs. The potential importance of macrophyte decay to P recycling in the other lakes is greater. Decay of macrophyte species at the end of the growing season appears to affect autumnal nutrient and chlorophyll a levels in the water column of some lakes. The re-establishment of submerged species following lake restoration may increase the importance of this pathway in the lakes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: wetland characteristics ; threats ; conservation ; rehabilitation ; management ; ecological research ; The Netherlands
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Wetlands are among the worlds' most important, but also most threatened, environmental resources. Wetland losses have been in progress particularly from the industrial revolution onwards, because wetland functions could not successfully compete for space with other land uses. Wetlands became recently foci of conservation efforts because of the increased awareness of their importance in water management and wildlife conservation, and because of the diversity of their habitats. The Netherlands are relatively rich in wetlands: 16% of its' territory is regarded as internationally important wetland and 7% has been registered as such. The major Dutch wetland types are: coastal ecosystems, large riverine systems, base-rich freshwater systems, and nutrient-poor freshwater systems. Most threats to the Dutch wetlands are of man-made origin. They comprise: (1) Changes in hydrology leading to changed discharges, currents and desiccation; (2) Acidification; (3) Eutrophication; and (4) Toxification. Long-term threats are largely climate-change related, and concern temperature rise and the UV-B increase in irradiation. General conservation goals also apply to wetlands but Ramsar-registered wetlands have a special status. Conservation of the Dutch wetlands is difficult, because of the high population density of the country and its inherent threats. However, ecological targets and standards are increasingly set in national Policy Plans and international agreements. Rehabilitation and creation of wetlands is presently widely advocated, and sometimes realised. For ecological research, the sustainability of wetlands should get top priority. Such a research programme would focus on understanding the underlying ecological processes in natural and man-dominated wetland systems to prescribe conservation, rehabilitation and management strategies that would enhance the sustainability of these systems. Within this framework special attention should be directed to studies (1) At the ecosystem level of ecosystem parameters, of which natural oscillations and trends in time, and on which the impact of disturbances are quantified. Particularly these studies, in which often simulation models are used as tools for interpretation, can provide the basis for extrapolations in space and time; (2) On adaptation capacity and mechanisms of (groups of) species to extreme environmental conditions; (3) On (mutual) relationships between plants, animals and microorganisms (e.g. competition, grazing and mineralization); (4) On dispersion between small wetlands. For the contemporary quantitative assessment of the long-term effects of climate changes, the effects of temperature rise and increase in UV-B irradiation on individual species, communities and ecosystems should also be studied.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The case of a patient with a large intra- and extrahepatic aneurysm of the hepatic artery is reported. In such cases, accurate preoperative diagnosis is essential, angiography for diagnosis and for a good preoperative evaluation is of considerable importance.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Colloid & polymer science 220 (1967), S. 171-192 
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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