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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Roots from Allium cepa L. (cv. Francesa) bulbs in which a maximum of two nucleoli per nucleus developed were selected for this study. Five rDNA clusters were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosomal squashes (2n = 16) with a rhodamine-labelled wheat rDNA repeat. The rDNA clusters were located on four chromosomes: the largest cluster occurred on the small arm of a single homologue of the smallest pair 8. Its homologue showed two different small rDNA clusters, one near each telomere. The two homologues of the satellited chromosomes 6 also showed different rDNA contents, which were intermediate to those found in pair 8. The same five well-differentiated hybridization signals were observed in interphase cells that were inactive in transcription because they were in dormant roots, or in proliferating ones in which the synthesis of the large rRNA precursor was prevented. After multipolarizing agent was applied in anaphase followed by inhibition of cytokinesis, multinucleate autotetraploid cells were formed, which often contained more than four nucleoli. Thus, at least two of the three nucleolar organizer regions that consistently failed to develop a nucleolus in normal mononucleate cells were capable of developing nucleoli when segregated into different nuclei in multinucleate cells.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The cyclic lipopeptide globomycin, a specific inhibitor of signal-peptidase II (Lsp A), proved toxic for the mollicute Spiroplasma melliferum with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range 6.25–12.5 μM, about one order of magnitude higher (that is, less efficient) than bee-venom mellitin. SDS-PAGE analysis of cell proteins followed by immunolabeling (“Western blotting”) and by crossed immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated that the cleavage of the prespiralin leader peptide was prevented by globomycin. Cell fractionation experiments showed that prespiralin was membrane bound and did not accumulate in the cytoplasm or in the culture medium. Furthermore, the use of the potential-sensitive fluorescent dye 3,3′-dipropyl-2,2′-thiadicarbocyanine iodide (diS-C3-[5]) revealed that, in contrast to valinomycin and mellitin, globomycin up to 30 μM has no effect on the electrical transmembrane potential of S. melliferum. This indicates that the toxicity of globomycin for spiroplasma cells is mainly if not exclusively owing to the inhibition of spiralin processing. Added to previously published data, these results suggest that spiralin and probably other lipoproteins of mollicutes are acylated and membrane targeted by a mechanism involving notably the processing of the prelipoprotein precursor by a type II, globomycin-sensitive signal peptidase.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1615-5947
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: p = 0.48). Early graft thrombosis occurred in 35 patients (12%) during the same hospital admission (EA 14%, GA 9.4%; p= 0.28). There were no significant differences in the graft thrombosis rates for EA and GA with respect to surgical indications (claudication versus limb salvage), graft materials (vein versus synthetic), or the extent of revascularization (popliteal versus crural). Most graft failures appeared to be related to such conventional factors as disadvantaged outflow vessels and/or specific technical complications. Therefore, we conclude that the choice between EA and GA should continue to be made selectively on the basis of traditional anesthetic considerations.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-5947
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The records of 52 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for 57 episodes of hemodialysis graft infection (HGI) from 1977 to 1993 were reviewed to determine the mortality and morbidity associated with this complication and to clarify guidelines for its management. The study group consisted of 35 women and 17 men whose mean age was 57 years at initial graft placement. Thirty-three (58%) HGIs involved straight grafts in the upper arm, 12 (21%) straight forearm grafts, 11 (19%) loop forearm grafts, and 1 (2%) a loop groin fistula. All of these grafts were constructed with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). All 57 cases of HGI showed at least local evidence and 41 (72%) caused systemic symptoms. Thirty-seven (65%) HGIs were associated with positive blood cultures. The predominant infecting organism was Staphylococcus,which was isolated alone or in combination with other organisms from 40 (70%) graft or wound sites. Seventy-eight percent (31/40) of the staphylococcal infections involved Staphylococcus aureus.The median time from graft implantation to diagnosis of HGI was 7 months (mean 16 months, range 0 to 77 months) and from diagnosis to surgical treatment, 4 days (mean 6 days, range 0 to 26 days). Initial surgical management consisted of complete excision of all prosthetic material in 43 (75%) cases and partial excision in 14. The 30-day mortality rate following the last operation for the treatment of HGI was 12% (6/52) and was not significantly increased by incomplete excision. Six (86%) of the early deaths were related to sepsis and each of these patients had positive blood cultures. None of the infected grafts could be salvaged without removal of at least part of the original graft. None of the 43 complete excisions was complicated by recurrent infection at the same time, whereas this complication did occur following six (43%) of the 14 procedures during which residual prosthetic material was left in place (p = 0.00008, Fisher's exact test). Prosthetic HGI is a serious complication that is optimally treated by excision of all infected PTFE. Complete removal of synthetic material offers a significantly reduced risk of recurrent graft sepsis at the same site.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Anaesthetists are often employed as medical escorts for patients undergoing international transfer by air ambulance. There is little published data on the types of patients being transferred and on the incidence of adverse events. We performed a retrospective review of the documentation of all air ambulance transfers performed by a single company over a 2-year period followed by a prospective assessment of all high-risk patients transferred over a 1-year period. Of 483 transfers identified, 47% were defined as high-risk and 20% were of patients receiving mechanical ventilation. In the prospective group, 28% of patients required pretransfer optimisation, 7% required a major therapeutic intervention during transfer and there was a major adverse event in 12% of transfers. There were two deaths during transport. These data support the recommendation that escorting personnel should be from an appropriate speciality, have reasonable seniority and be adequately trained and supervised.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Allium (nucleoporin) ; Brassica (nucleoporin) ; Daucus (nucleoporin) ; Nucleoporin (plant) ; Nucleus (pore, matrix)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Salt-detergent extraction of purified plant nuclei yields a fraction enriched in putative structural proteins known as the “nuclear matrix”. Compared with mammalian nuclear matrices, which contain three major proteins, plant nuclear matrices are complex, containing at least 100 polypeptides. In order to characterise more fully the plant nuclear matrix we have used antibodies raised against both yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammalian (rat) nuclear pore proteins. We have shown that the nuclear matrix of carrot (Daucus carota L.) contains at least one nucleoporin-like protein of about 100 kDa which is immunologically related to both the yeast nuclear pore protein NSP1 and mammalian nucleoporins (p62). Antibody labelling of a variety of plant cells at the light-microscope and electron-microscope levels confirms that this antigen is located at the nuclear pores. This, to our knowledge, is the first identification of a nuclear pore protein in plants.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: box C/D ; box H/ACA ; intron ; processing ; small nucleolar RNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are involved in various aspects of ribosome biogenesis and rRNA maturation. Plants have a unique organisation of snoRNA genes where multiple, different genes are tightly clustered at a number of different loci. The maize gene clusters studied here include genes from both of the two major classes of snoRNAs (box C/D and box H/ACA) and are transcribed as a polycistronic pre-snoRNA transcript from an upstream promoter. In contrast to vertebrate and yeast intron-encoded snoRNAs, which are processed from debranched introns by exonuclease activity, the particular organisation of plant snoRNA genes suggests a different mode of expression and processing. Here we show that single and multiple plant snoRNAs can be processed from both non-intronic and intronic transcripts such that processing is splicing-independent and requires endonucleolytic activity. Processing of these different snoRNAs from the same polycistronic transcript suggests that the processing machineries needed by each class are not spatially separated in the nucleolus/nucleus.
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