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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Dicentrics are among the most common structural abnormalities of the human Y chromosome. Predicting the phenotypic consequences of different duplications and deletions of dicentric Y chromosomes is usually complicated by varying degrees of mosaicism (45,X cell lines), which may, in some cases, remain undetected. Molecular studies in patients with dicentric Y chromosomes have been few, and only two studies have attempted to determine the presence of SRY (the putative testis-determining factor gene). We report an 18-year-old female with short stature, amenorrhea, hirsutism, hypoplastic labia minora, and clitoromegaly who has a 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(p11.32)/47,X,idic(Y)(p11.32),idic(Y) (p11.32) karyotype. Southern analysis using Y-specific probes (Y97, 2D6, 1F5, pY3.4) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using primers for ZFY and SRY were positive for all loci tested, indicating that almost all of the Y chromosome was present. Our findings and an extensive review of the literature emphasize the importance of molecular analyses of abnormal Y chromosomes before any general conclusions can be reached concerning the relative effects of the Y-chromosome abnormality and mosaicism on sexual differentiation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Chromatin ; Testis ; Nuclear condensation ; Cell separation ; Antibodies ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The presence of highly acetylated histone H4 during spermatogenesis was studied to evaluate its correlation with the events of gene transcription, histone deposition, and histone displacement. We utilized an antibody raised to a pentaacetylated synthetic peptide that preferentially recognizes highly (tetra- and tri-) acetylated forms of rat testis H4. Electrophoretic separation of histones from enriched fractions of spermatogenic cells followed by detection of these forms by staining and by immunoblotting using this antibody showed that the highly acetylated forms were limited almost exclusively to spermatids beginning at step 11 of development. Immunofluorescence generally confirmed this result but also detected a high degree of acetylation in steps 9 and 10. Immunofluorescence also revealed a striking polarity in the progression of histone from the spermatid nucleus. Highly acetylated H4 was displaced from the anterior to the caudal portion of the spermatid nucleus during steps 11 and 12, along with other histones, prior to their displacement by transition proteins. Thus, while monoacetylated and low levels of diacetylated forms of H4 were associated with stages at which histone deposition and transcription occur, the more highly acetylated forms appeared in high levels only at the stage at which histone displacement occurs.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Chromatin ; Spermatogenesis ; Tyrosine hydroxylase ; Immunohistochemistry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Changes in chromatin structure during spermatogenesis were investigated using a monoclonal antibody that immunoreacts with the N-terminus of the testis-specific histone TH2B. This monoclonal antibody, which had been raised against rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), cross-reacted with TH2B because of sequence homology at the N-termini of TH and TH2B. The epitope was localized to the N-terminus of TH2B as trypsin-digested chromatin which lacked the N-terminal tail did not react with anti-TH and preincubating anti-TH with a synthetic peptide made from the homologous sequence between TH2B and TH inhibited its binding to TH and TH2B. In histological sections of rat testis, the primary spermatocytes and round spermatids immunoreacted weakly, whereas elongating spermatids at steps 10-12 immunoreacted intensely with anti-TH. Increased staining of elongating spermatids was also observed in mouse and hamster by immunohistochemistry. However, immunoblotting proteins extracted from separated rat testis cells showed no increase in the TH2B content of these late steps of spermatids. The apparent increase in the immunohistochemical staining corresponds to increased accessibility of the epitope in the elongating spermatids. This indicated that the N-terminus of TH2B is less tightly bound to DNA or to other proteins at this time in preparation for the removal of TH2B and other histones. © 1995 wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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