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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Gynecology ; Radiology, Medical ; Oncology ; Pathology ; Medicine & Public Health ; Imaging / Radiology ; Diagnostic Radiology ; Biophysics and Biological Physics ; Pathology ; Oncology ; Gynecology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9783540784500
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Phenylketonuria ; Myelination ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; 1H spectroscopy ; T2 relaxometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to further clarify the pathogenesis and clinical significance of MRI white matter abnormalities in treated hyperphenylalaninaemia (HPA), ten patients (seven type I HPA, two type II and one type III) underwent T2 relaxometry (n=8) and/or1H spectroscopy (n=7) in addition to conventional MR spin-echo imaging at 1.5 T. Two patients with severe MRI abnormalities had repeat examinations during and after a 6-to 8-month period of strict diet control. The clinical evaluation included a detailed neurological examination. In nine out of ten patients visual evoked potentials (VEP) were obtained parallel to the MR examination. MR imaging demonstrated typical symmetrical areas of prolonged T2 relaxation time predominantly in the posterior periventricular white matter in all but one of type I and II patients. There was no consistent relationship between MRI findings and time of diagnosis/initiation of therapy, IQ or visual evoked potential changes. MRI abnormalities tended to be more severe in patients with poor dietary control and high current plasma phenylalanine levels, whereas a normal MRI was found only in patients with plasma phenylalanine levels continuously below 0.36 mmol/l. There was marked regression of MRI abnormalities already after 3 months of strict diet control. T2 relaxometry showed a bi-exponential behaviour of T2 in the affected white matter, with a slow component of about 200–450 ms, indicating an increase in free (extracellular) water.1H spectroscopy revealed no signs of severe neuronal damage. We conclude, that the observed white matter changes in treated HPA probably represent reversible structural myelin changes rather than permanent demyelination.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Phenylketonuria ; Adolescents ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Myelination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in nine treated adolescents with hyperphenylalaninaemia (HPA) in order to analyse possible changes in myelination. Three patients suffered from type I HPA, four from type II and two from type III (persistent HPA). Images were obtained with a 1.5T unit using spin-echo-sequences. In all patients with type I or type II HPA, abnormal findings in the cerebral white matter were demonstrated including band-like and/or confluent patchy areas of high signal intensity predominantly in the peritrigonal region, with anterior and posterior periventricular extension and/or involvement of the subcortical white matter. The extent of MRI changes did not correlate with the initiation, duration or quality of dietary treatment. There was also no consistent relationship between electrophysiological changes and white matter abnormalities on MRI. Our findings suggest a disturbance of myelination in patients with treated HPA. These results correspond well with earlier neuropathological and biochemical studies in untreated patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European radiology 6 (1996), S. 800-800 
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European radiology 9 (1999), S. 1152-1160 
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: PACS ; RIS ; Digital radiography ; Image storage ; Network communication
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. More than 15 years ago the idea of a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and a filmless hospital was created. In a PACS environment images are acquired, read, communicated and stored digitally. After many years of unsuccessful attempts and prototype installations, the necessary hardware components for a successful PACS installation are now readily available. However, software development is still lagging behind. Only very recently, software developers have realized that it is not sufficient for PACS software to store, communicate and display images, but that PACS software should effectively support the radiologist in the task of interpreting and communicating imaging findings through context-dependent default display arrangements, work-flow management, radiological and hospital information systems integration, and computer-assisted diagnosis. This review examines hard- and software requirements for efficient PACS operation, analyses costs and benefits, and discusses future developments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Chest ; Digital storage phosphor radiography ; Intensive care ; Neonates ; Radiation dose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to evaluate the influence of radiation exposure on image quality in digital storage phosphor radiography, 200 digital storage phosphor chest radiographs, obtained on a neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and the same number of conventional screen-film radiographs (speed 250) were assessed for the visibility of anatomical structures and catheters. The same exposure parameters were used in both groups. Normal variations of radiation exposure under free exposure conditions were estimated in all digital images using a formula calculating radiation dose in the screen-plane from image sensitivity, latitude and average grey value of the right lung. There was already a significant (P 〈 0.001) decline in image quality in the digital images with a 30–50% reduction in radiation exposure, which was most severe for structures such as trachea, retrocardiac space, lung texture and low-contrast catheters. Compared with optimally exposed conventional images, only those digital images with a slightly higher than normal dose had an equivalent image quality.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: MR imaging ; Turbo inversion recovery ; Brain ; Growth and development ; Myelin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The aim of our work was to determine the efficacy of turbo inversion recovery spin echo (TIRSE) pulse sequences in differentiating patients with normal and abnormal myelination. Twenty neurological normal children (aged 5 months to 12 years) as well as 65 children presenting clinically with neurologic developmental deficits (aged 2 months to 10 years) were examined using TIRSE, T1-weighted SE, and T2-weighted turbo SE pulse sequences. Contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) between myelinated white and gray matter was compared for the different pulse sequences. In addition, two readers analyzed all images qualitatively by consensus. The CNR values were significantly higher on TIRSE images as compared with conventional images (p 〈 0.05). Forty-two neurologically abnormal patients displayed a normal myelination on all sequences, whereas 23 showed an abnormal myelination. The TIRSE sequence provided a sensitive and specific depiction of an abnormal myelination in all of these patients. The TIRSE sequence provided additional information to conventional pulse sequences in determining myelination disorders in children, especially in children older than 2 years.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Teleradiology ; Telemedicine ; ISDN ; Image selection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. This study examines the suitability of working with a selection of images in a teleradiology consulting system in neurological or neurosurgical emergency situations. The teleradiology system was based on IBM-compatible personal computers, video digitization for data acquisition, and data transmission by Integrated System Digital Network. Forty normal and 60 abnormal emergency cranial computed tomograms were shown to a radiologist on call who presented all cases he regarded as pathologic to a neuroradiologic expert by teleradiology. To reduce transmission time, only a selection of images from the CT study was presented (up to four images per case). For each case the on-call radiologist's diagnosis (Don-call), the expert's diagnosis on the teleradiology screen (Dmonitor), and the expert's diagnosis on the original film (Doriginal) was documented, together with an estimation of the agreement between those diagnoses. There was clinically relevant disagreement between the on-call radiologist's diagnosis and the neuroradiologist's diagnosis based on the image selection on the teleradiology monitor in 23 % of cases. A clinically important discrepancy between the neuroradiologist's diagnosis based on the image selection and his diagnosis using the original films was found in 30 % of cases. This was due to the presence of clinically relevant information on images not transferred by the on-call radiologist. Image quality of the transferred images was sufficient in all cases. Drastic selection of images from a complete CT study leads to a high rate of incorrect diagnoses and is not appropriate to reduce transmission time in teleradiology.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Spiral CT ; Postprocessing ; Small bowel ; Colon ; Translucent imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Tissue transition projection (TTP) represents a three-dimensional reconstruction technique for volumetric image data sets. To demonstrate the principle characteristics of TTP, a simple phantom consisting of two pipes with a simulated, wall-adherent polyp was scanned with spiral CT, and images were reconstructed by means of volume rendering for both opaque surface reconstructions and TTP. Tissue transition projection was used in 7 patients for reconstruction of the small intestine or the colon. Unlike three-dimensional reconstructions with opaque surfaces, TTP enhances surface transitions while suppressing homogeneous areas, allowing delineation of the bowel wall similar to conventional double-contrast studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Radiologe 36 (1996), S. 172-173 
    ISSN: 1432-2102
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Computertomographie ; Magnetresonanztomographie ; CD-ROM ; Interaktives Lernprogramm ; Key words Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance tomography ; CD-ROM ; Interactive teaching file
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The Schering Atlas is a teaching file in CT and MRI anatomy designed for physicians and students. It is available on CD-ROM, shows good image quality, and is easy to use in medium-price-range personal computer systems. Because of the amount and quality of image material, the Schering Atlas's price is appropriate for institutions, but not for private users.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Der Schering-Atlas stellt u. E. ein praxisnahes, zum Training von Studenten und Ärzten ausgezeichnet geeignetes Lernprogramm zur Schnittbildanatomie in CT und MR dar. Der Schering-Atlas beinhaltet sämtliche für den Lernenden wesentlichen anatomischen Strukturen. Verzichtet wurde im Schering-Atlas auf die Darstellung sehr kleiner und selten identifizierbarer anatomischer Strukturen, was ihn als Nachschlagewerk für den schnittbildradiologisch versierten Benutzer doch einschränkt. In der Anwendung lassen sich bezüglich Bedienbarkeit und Arbeitsgeschwindigkeit an Personalcomputern mittlerer Preisklasse keine Mängel feststellen. Der Preis des Softwarepaketes erscheint uns in Anbetracht der hohen Qualität und Vielzahl des angebotenen Bildmaterials für klinische Institutionen zwar tragbar, für viele private Anwender aber sicherlich zu hoch. Immerhin hat sich ein System wie der Schering-Atlas, auch in Anbetracht der Möglichkeit des interaktiven Trainings, letztlich zu messen an dem, was an konventioneller Literatur zu diesem Preis zur Verfügung steht.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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