Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Optically Active 4,5-Epoxy-4,5-dihydro-α-ionones; Synthesis of the Stereoisomeric 4,5:4′,5′-Diepoxy-4,5,4′,5′-tetrahydro-∊,∊-carotenes and the Steric Course of their HydrolysisWe prove that epoxidation with peracid of α-ionone, contrary to a recently published statement, predominantly leads to the cis-epoxide. Acid hydrolysis affords a single 4,5-glycol whose structure, established by an X-ray analysis, shows that oxirane opening occurred with inversion at the least substituted position (C(4)). Stable cis-and trans-epoxides are prepared by epoxidation of the C15-phosphonates derived from α-ionone. Both the racemic and optically active form are used for the synthesis of the 4,5:4′,5′-diepoxy-4,5,4′,5′-tetrahydro-∊,∊-carotenes having the following configuration in the end groups: meso-cis/cis, meso-trans/trans, rac-cis/trans, rac- and (6R, 6′ R)-cis/cis, rac- and (6R, 6′R)-trans/trans, rac- and (6R, 6′R)-cis/trans, and (6R, 6′ R)-cis/∊. Acid hydrolysis of the cis/cis-epoxycarotenoids under relatively strong conditions occurs again with inversion at C(4)/C(4′) in case of the cis/cis-epoxycarotenoids, but at C(5)/C(5′) in case of the trans/trans-epoxycarotenoids. An independent synthesis of this 4,5,4′,5′-tetrahydro-∊,∊-carotene-4,5,4′,5′-tetrol is presented. The irregular results of the oxirane hydrolysis are explained by assumption of neighbouring effects of the lateral chain. 400-Mz-1H-NMR data are given for each of the stereoisomeric sets. In the visible range of the CD spectra, the (6R, 6R′)-epoxycarotenoids compared with (6R, 6R′)-∊,∊-carotene exhibit an inversion of the Cotton effects.
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