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  • 1
    Abstract: In classic concentric/eccentric exercise, the same absolute load is applied in concentric and eccentric actions, which infers a smaller relative eccentric load. We compared the effects of 6 weeks of classic concentric/eccentric quadriceps strength training (CON/ECC, 11 subjects) to eccentric overload training (CON/ECC+, 14 subjects) in athletes accustomed to regular strength training. The parameters determined included functional tests, quadriceps and fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), fibre type distribution by ATPase staining, localisation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform mRNAs by situ hybridization and the steady-state levels of 48 marker mRNAs (RT-PCR) in vastus lateralis biopsies taken before and after training. Both training forms had anabolic effects with significant increases in quadriceps CSA, maximal strength, ribosomal RNA content and the levels of mRNAs involved in growth and regeneration. Only the CON/ECC+ training led to significantly increased height in a squat jump test. This was accompanied by significant increases in IIX fibre CSA, in the percentage of type IIA fibres expressing MHC IIx mRNA, in the level of mRNAs preferentially expressed in fast, glycolytic fibres, and in post-exercise capillary lactate. The enhanced eccentric load apparently led to a subtly faster gene expression pattern and induced a shift towards a faster muscle phenotype plus associated adaptations that make a muscle better suited for fast, explosive movements
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19937450
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 6 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In Escherichia coli, chemotactic sensory transduction is believed to involve phosphoryl transfer for excitation, and changes in receptor methylation for adaptation. In Bacillus subtilis, changes in degree of receptor methylation do not bring about adaptation. Novel methylation reactions are believed to be involved in excitation in B. subtillis. The main chemotaxis proteins of E. coli—CheA, CheB, CheR, CheW and CheY—are present in B. subtilis but play somewhat different roles in the two organisms. Several unique chemotaxis proteins are also present in B. subtilis. Some of the properties of B. subtilis chemotaxis are also seen in Halobacterium halobium, suggesting that there may be a similar underlying mechanism that predates the evolutionary separation of the bacteria from the archaea and eucarya.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Adenylate cyclase from rat hippocampus was separated by electrophoresis in polyacryl amide microgels and stained for enzymatic activity using a new histochemical procedure. This method involves the use of AMP-PNP, aminophylline, dithiotreitole, and Sr2+ as “primary” capture ions, thus fulfilling all the demands for a really specific histochemical incubation medium for the enzyme. The incubation of the gels with this medium resulted in the inhibition of other enzymes, which are capable of splitting AMP-PNP (ATP: pyrophosphatase, alkaline phosphatase), whereas adenylate cyclase remained highly active under these conditions. The enzyme was found to be present in two forms in the gels. Both protein bands were stimulated by the addition of various biogenic amines to the incubation medium. One protein band was fully GMP-PNP dependent in its activity. It is reasonable to suppose that these forms are either differently high aggregated molecules of the enzyme or enzyme molecules bound to their regulatory sites.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: O-vinylcarbamates are prepared by dehydrochlorination of the corresponding β(-halo-genethyl) compounds. The homopolymerization and the copolymerization of O-vinyl-N-diäthylcarbamat with acrylic acid, methylacrylate, and maleic acid anhydride are examined and the copolymerization parameters are determined.
    Notes: Carbamidsäurevinylester wurden durch Dehydrohalogenierung der entsprechendes Carbamidsäure-[β-halogen-äthylester] hergestellt. Die Homopolymerisation dieser Verbindungen und die Copolymerisation des Diäthylcarbamidsäurevinylesters mit Acrylsäure, Acrylsäuremethylester und Maleinsäureanhydrid wurden untersucht und hierfür die Copolymerisationsparameter bestimmt.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The paper is concerned with first order approximation methods to solve non-linear optimization problems as they arise in structural optimization. A modification of the original Method of Moving Asymptotes (MMA) is presented to prevent oscillation or divergence by incorporating a line-search into the global iteration algorithm. In this line-search a merit-function of augmented Lagrangian type is decreased by using a backtracking strategy. A proof is presented to show the descent property of the proposed merit-function for MMA. Numerical examples demonstrate how the new technique stabilizes the iteration process.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1435-1285
    Keywords: Key words Supravalvular aortic stenosis – Williams syndrome ; Schlüsselwörter Supravalvuläre Aortenstenose – Williams-Syndrom
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die supravalvuläre Aortenstenose ist im Erwachsenenalter seltene Ursache einer Behinderung des linksventrikulären Blutausstroms. Sie tritt zum einen als isolierter Defekt sporadisch oder familiär mit autosomal-dominantem Erbgang ohne weitere phänotypische Anomalien und zum anderen im Rahmen des Williams-Syndroms mit geistiger Retardierung und multiplen weiteren Anomalien auf. Als Ursache ist ein Defekt des Elastin kodierenden Gens nachgewiesen. Die supravalvuläre Aortenstenose ist häufig mit kardiovaskulären Defekten assoziiert, insbesondere Anomalien der peripheren Pulmonalarterien, der thorakalen Aorta, der Carotiden, der Aa. subclaviae, der Koronarien und der Aortenklappe. Die Koronararterien sind einem erhöhten Perfusionsdruck ausgesetzt, was zu deren Dilatation, Schlängelung und beschleunigter Arteriosklerose beiträgt. Es wird über einen 35-jährigen Patienten berichtet, bei dem eine bisher asymptomatische supravalvuläre Aortenstenose mit einer exzessiven Dilatation von rechter Koronararterie und Ramus descendens anterior der linken Koronararterie sowie einer Ostiumstenose der linken A. carotis communis vergesellschaftet ist. Phänotypische Anomalien des Williams-Syndroms fanden sich bei dem Patienten nicht.
    Notes: Summary Supravalvular aortic stenosis is a rare cause of left ventricular outflow obstruction in adults. It occurs as an isolated defect sporadically or on a hereditary basis with an autosomal dominant trait without further phenotypical anomalies, or as part of the Williams syndrome with mental retardation and multiple other anomalies. This lesion was proved to result from a defect of the elastin coding gene. Supravalvular aortic stenosis is frequently associated with cardiovascular defects, particularly of the peripheral pulmonary arteries, thoracic aorta, carotid, subclavian, and coronary arteries and the aortic valve. The coronary arteries are subject to an increased perfusion pressure leading to dilatation, tortuosity and acelerated arteriosclerosis. We give details of a 35-year-old patient in whom a previously asymptomatic supravalvular aortic stenosis is associated with an excessive dilatation of the right coronary artery and the left anterior descending coronary artery as well as an ostium stenosis of the left common carotid artery. The patient did not present any phenotypical anomalies of the Williams syndrome.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-01-20
    Description: Deficient functional expression of drug transporters incapacitates most hepatic cell lines as a reliable tool for evaluating transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. Recently, genetically modified cells (referred to as upcyte hepatocytes) have emerged as an expandable, noncancerous source of human hepatic cells. Herein, we quantified mRNA and protein levels of key hepatobiliary transporters and we assessed associated uptake activity in short- and long-term cultures of upcyte human hepatocytes (UHH) in comparison to cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes (cPHH). Expression of canalicular efflux pumps, such as MRD1/ ABCB1 , MATE1/ SLC47A1 , and MRP2/ ABCC2 , was relatively well preserved in UHH. By contrast, long-term cultivation of UHH in a two-dimensional sandwich configuration [sandwich-cultured upcyte human hepatocytes (SCUHH)] was required to upregulate organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP1B1/ SLCO1B1 , OATP2B1/ SLCO2B1 , NTCP/ SLC10A1 , and OCT1/ SLC22A1 mRNA expression, which correlated well with respective protein abundances. However, mRNA and protein levels of sinusoidal solute carrier transporters, except for NTCP and OATP2B1, remained low in SCUHH compared to sandwich-cultured cPHH. OCT1- and NTCP-mediated uptake of N -methyl-4-phenylpyridinium acetate and taurocholate was demonstrated in both hepatic models, whereas active uptake of OATP1B1/1B3-selective marker substrates, paralleled by markedly reduced SLCO1B1/1B3 expression, were not detectable in SCUHH. Uptake studies under Na + -depletion and excess of taurocholate confirmed the presence of functional NTCP protein and indicated that NTCP, apart from OATP2B1, contributed substantially to the overall hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin in SCUHH. In conclusion, our data suggest that SCUHH, despite their limitation for evaluating OATP1B1/1B3-mediated transport processes, retain NTCP, OATP2B1, and OCT1 transport activities and thus may be considered as a tool for elucidating compensatory uptake pathways for OATP1B1/1B3 substrates.
    Print ISSN: 0090-9556
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-009X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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