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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Brassica campestris ; cell division ; cotyledonary protoplasts ; callus formation ; plant regeneration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Protoplasts isolated from both 7-day-old light-grown and 4-day-old dark/dim light-grown cotyledons of four Brassica campestris varieties (Arlo, Sonja, Bunyip and Wonk Bok) were cultured in three liquid media: modified K8P, modified MS and modified Pelletier's B to compare the capacities for cell division and plant regeneration. Following cell wall regeneration the cultured protoplasts from dark/dim light-grown cotyledons of four varieties showed rapid division and high frequency of cell division compared with those isolated from light-grown cotyledons. The frequencies of cell division were significantly influenced by varieties and culture media but only in cultured protoplasts isolated from dark/dim light-grown cotyledons. The interaction between varieties and media was also significant. Cell colonies formed within 7–14 days in protoplast cultures from dark/dim light-grown cotyledons, and calli subsequently grown on a solid medium developed shoots when transferred onto a regeneration medium. Three of four tested varieties (Arlo, Sonja and Bunyip) showed shoot regeneration within 2–3 months after protoplast isolation, with a high degree of reproducibility in Arlo and Bunyip. Regenerated shoots, which were induced to root on half-strength MS medium with 0.1 mg.l−1 IBA, survived in soil and grew to produce siliques and set viable seeds in the greenhouse. The present report is the first to document the production of regenerated plants that set seeds in Brassica campestris from cotyledonary protoplasts.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Brassica napus ; B. campestris ; B. oleracea ; cotyledon protoplasts ; callus formation and growth ; plant regeneration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cotyledons from twelve cultivars of Brassica; B. napus (Westar, Eureka, Global, Pivot and Narc 82); B. campestris: (Arlo, Sonja, Bunyip and Wonk Bok) and B. oleracea (Phenomenal Early, Sugar Loaf and Earliball) were used for protoplast isolation and culture in a comparative study of cell colony and callus formation, and plant regeneration. The formation of cell colonies and callus from protoplast cultures were significantly influenced by the light conditions of seed germination. All twelve cultivars showed callus formation from protoplast cultures derived from cotyledons of seedlings grown in dark for 3 days followed by 1 day dim light (dark/dim light-grown). Callus was obtained in all five liquid media used: modified K8P(1), modified K8P(2), modified MS, modified B and modified NN. In contrast, only six cultivars exhibited callus formation from the protoplasts isolated from cotyledons of seedlings germinated under light conditions for 7 days (light-grown) and in only three media: modified K8P(1), modified MS, modified B. Callus, derived from protoplast cultures isolated from dark/dim light-grown cotyledons and grown on K3 or MS series solid media for about 1 month, could develop shoots when further transferred onto MS series regeneration media. All five cultivars of B. napus, three of the four cultivars of B. campestris (Arlo, Sonja and Bunyip) and one of the three cultivars of B. oleracea (Sugar Loaf) exhibited shoot regeneration from protoplast cultures within 2–3 months after protoplast isolation. The frequency of shoot regeneration ranged among 1–22.5%. A high degree of reproducibility was observed in cultivars Westar, Eureka, Global, Arlo, Bunyip and Sugar Loaf. In contrast, among the six cultivars that formed callus in protoplast culture derived from light-grown cotyledons, only three cultivars from B. napus (Westar, Eureka, Global) exhibited shoot regeneration 5.5 months after protoplast isolation. Regenerated shoots from cultivars Westar, Eureka and Bunyip and Sugar Loaf, which derived from protoplasts of dark/dim light germinated seedling and were induced to root on rooting media, survived in soil and grew to produce silique and set seeds.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Brassica campestris ; B. napus ; B. oleracea ; cell division ; cell wall regeneration ; cotyledon protoplasts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Protoplasts isolated from cotyledons of a number of cultivars of Brassica napus, B. campestris and B. oleracea were cultured in different media to study the characteristics of cell wall regeneration and cell division at early stages of culture. Time course analysis using Calcolfluor White staining indicated that cell wall regeneration began in some protoplasts 2–4 h following isolation in all cultivars. 30–70% of cultured cotyledon protoplasts exhibited cell wall regeneration at 24 h and about 60–90% at 72 h after the initiation of culture. Results also indicated that a low percentage (0.4–5.4%) of cultured cotyledon protoplasts entered their first cell division one day after initial culture in all twelve cultivars. The percentage of dividing cells increased linearly up to 40% from 1 to 7 day, indicating that cotyledon protoplasts of Brassica had a high capacity for cell division. Factors that influence the level of cell wall regeneration and cell division during cotyledon protoplast culture have been investigated in this study. Cotyledons from seedlings germinated in a dark/dim light regime provided a satisfactory tissue source for protoplast isolation and culture for all Brassica cultivars used. The percentages of protoplasts exhibiting cell wall regeneration and division were significantly influenced by cultivar and species examined, with protoplasts from all five cultivars of B. campestris showing much lower rates of cell wall regeneration than those of B. napus and B. oleracea over 24–120 h, and with the levels of cell division in B. napus cultivars being much higher than those in B. campestris and B. oleracea over 1–9 days. The capacity of cell wall regeneration and cell division in cotyledon protoplast culture of the Brassica species appears under strong genetic control. Cell wall regeneration in protoplast culture was not affected by the culture medium used. In contrast, the composition of the culture medium played an important role in determining the level of cell division, and the interaction between medium type and cultivars was very significant.
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