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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Biophysical Chemistry 5 (1976), S. 165-170 
    ISSN: 0301-4622
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters A 91 (1982), S. 197-200 
    ISSN: 0375-9601
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Dichlorvos ; Teratology ; Inhalation ; Rat ; Rabbit ; Dichlorvos ; Teratologie ; Inhalation ; Ratte ; Kaninchen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung An Kaninchen und Ratten wurde die teratogene Wirkung von inhaliertem Dichlorvos untersucht. Im Versuch waren primipare Kaninchenweibchen der Rasse “Dutch” mit einem Anfangsgewicht von 2 bis 3 kg und primipare Rattenweibchen vom Stamm “Carworth Farm E“ mit einem Anfangsgewicht von 200 bis 300 g. Die Tiere wurden während der gesamten Trächtigkeit folgenden Konzentrationen in der Atemluft ausgesetzt: 0,25, 1,25 und 6,25 μg Dichlorvos pro Liter Luft. Ein zusätzliches Experiment am Kaninchen wurde mit 2 und 4 μg Dichlorvos pro Liter Luft durchgeführt. Die Behandlung wirkte weder beim Kaninchen noch bei der Ratte teratogen. Selbst Konzentrationen, die für die Kaninchen tödlich waren, und die eine deutliche Cholinesterasehemmung in Plasma, Erythrocyten und Gehirn der Ratten und Kaninchen hervorriefen, wurden ohne Schädigung für die Feten vertragen.
    Notes: Abstract The teratogenic potential of inhaled dichlorvos vapour for rabbits and rats was investigated on the offspring of primiparous female Dutch rabbits weighing 2 to 3 kg and primiparous female Carworth E strain rats weighing 200 to 300 g. The animals were exposed throughout pregnancy at concentrations of 0.25, 1.25 and 6.25 μg dichlorvos per litre of air. In an additional experiment pregnant rabbits were exposed to concentrations of 2 and 4 μg dichlorvos per litre of air. The results gave no indication that dichlorvos vapour is teratogenic in rabbits or rats even at exposure concentrations resulting in maternal deaths in rabbits, and causing depression of plasma, erythrocyte and brain cholinesterase activities in pregnant animals of both species.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: PACS: 0480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract.  In this paper we show that the available technology is sufficient to measure the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) of a low loss acoustic oscillator, with a readout based on a microwave parametric transducer. The experiment makes use of the low electrical and acoustical losses in monocrystalline sapphire and new low-noise microwave technology. The crystal acts as an electrical vibration sensor and an acoustic oscillator in one monolithic structure. We analyze two new types of such structures: (1) The sapphire bar dielectric transducer and (2) the slotted sapphire dielectric transducer. We show that with a 40–60 dB double-cavity phase-noise suppression system the SQL may be measured using the sapphire bar. For the slotted structure, the phase noise requirements are less stringent because of its smaller resonant frequency and mass. We show that the SQL of this structure may be measured with a standard parametric readout. The principle of operation is demonstrated by some simple room-temperature experiments with all results verified using finite-element analysis. Given that we can expect to measure the SQL with one of these schemes, we analyze the properties of a microwave displacement measurement system based upon a high-Q parametric transducer and a double-frequency oscillator. Such a readout system represents a practical implementation of a black action evasion (BAE) displacement sensor allowing the discrimination between the quadratures of the mechanical oscillator. We determine the set of conditions which allows the enhanced sensitivity with respect to the desired quadrature and suppressed sensitivity to the unwanted quadrature. We find that tuning of the BAE system at the particular quadrature of interest can be performed by varying the phase relationship between the microwave carriers available from the double-frequency oscillator. We establish the importance of having the frequency and the phase-control servos to maintain the optimal tuning of the micro-wave BAE readout system, as both the mechanical oscillator and the double-frequency pump oscillator are always subject to various sources of environmental interference.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In α-chloralose-anaesthetized, spinalized cats we examined the effects of NMDA antagonists on the discharges of 71 spinal neurons which had afferent input from the knee joint. These neurons were rendered hyperexcitable by acute arthritis in the knee induced by kaolin and carrageenan. They were located in the deep dorsal and ventral horn and some of them had ascending axons. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists ketamine and d-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5), were administered ionophoretically, and ketamine was also administered intravenously. In some of the experiments the antagonists were tested against the agonists NMDA and quisqualate. The effects of the NMDA antagonists consisted of a significant reduction in the resting activity of neurons and/or the responses of the same neurons to mechanical stimulation of the inflamed knee. Intravenous ketamine was most effective in suppressing the resting and mechanically evoked activity in 25 of 26 neurons tested. Ionophoretically applied ketamine had a suppressive effect in 11 of 21 neurons, and AP5 decreased activity in 17 of 24 cells. The reduction in the resting and/or the mechanically evoked discharges was achieved with doses of the antagonists which suppressed the responses to NMDA but not those to quisqualate. These results suggest that NMDA receptors are involved in the enhanced responses and basal activity of spinal neurons induced by inflammation in the periphery.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Using immunocytochemical methods, the proportion of calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive perikarya was determined in dorsal root ganglia L4–L6 in four control rats and in ten rats with a unilateral inflammation in the ankle region of the left hindlimb. The inflammation was induced by subdermal injection of Freund's complete adjuvant at the ankle. Swelling and cellular infiltration of the ankle region developed within 2 days, and were stable and restricted to the injected ankle for the duration of the 3-week study. In control rats ∼24% of 20 419 perikarya showed calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-like immunoreactivity. In rats with unilateral inflammation the proportion of CGRP-positive neurons was increased on the inflamed side to ∼32% of 11 454 cells at day 2 (P 〈 0.001 with respect to ganglia in normal rats) and ∼29% of 10 739 perikarya at day 20 post inoculation (P 〈 0.01). By contrast, no significant changes were found between ganglia in the non-injected side (∼25% at day 2 and ∼24% at day 20). These results demonstrate that peripheral inflammation is associated with an increase in the proportion of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia that synthetize CGRP. This up-regulation is already present at an early stage of inflammation but also at later stages, suggesting that the increased synthesis of CGRP is an important neurobiological reaction associated with the acute and chronic phases of inflammation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Dichlorvos ; Inhalational Toxicity ; Dichlorvos ; Inhalationstoxizität
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Katzen, Hunde und Kaninchen waren für 8 Wochen ununterbrochen Dichlorvos-Luftgemischen ausgesetzt, die durch mit Polyvinylchlor getränkte Streifen erzeugt wurden. Es wurden Konzentrationen von Dichlorvos in Luft angewendet, die im Bereich von 0.05 bis 0.3 μg/l lagen. Es wurde keine Wirkung auf den allgemeinen Gesundheitszustand, das Verhalten, die Plasma- und Erythrocyten-Cholinesteraseaktivität und die elektroencephalographischen Muster der Tiere festgestellt.
    Notes: Abstract Dogs, cats and rabbits were continuously exposed for eight weeks to dichlorvos atmospheres generated from impregnated polyvinyl chloride strips. Concentrations of dichlorvos in air were produced in the range 0.05 to 0.3 μg/l. No effects were found on the general health, behaviour, plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities and electroencephalographic patterns of the animals.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Dichlorvos ; Inhalation toxicity ; Rat ; Carcinogenesis ; Dichlorvos ; Inhalation-Toxizität ; Ratte ; Karzinogenese
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In den vorliegenden Untersuchungen wurde der Effekt von Dichlorvos-Inhalation in Beziehung zur Krebserzeugung bei Ratten (5 Wochen alte Carworth Farm E, 94–150 g) langfristig (2 Jahre) in Konzentrationen von 0, 0,05, 0,5 und 5 mg/m3 geprüft. Das Wachstum aller geprüften Tiere, im besonderen der männlichen, war verzögert. Bei Exposition in 5 mg/m3 war die Überlebensrate von Ratten erhöht. Die verschiedenen Gruppen zeigten keinen Unterschied in Futteraufnahme, Organgewichten, hämatologischen oder chemischen Bestimmungen, mit Ausnahme der Cholinesterase-Aktivität. Nach einer 2jährigen Inhalation wurden keine Unterschiede des Gehaltes an Acetylcholin und Cholin in einer kleineren Zahl weiblicher Tiere gefunden. Makro- oder mikroskopische Veränderungen in den Rattengeweben, die auf Dichlorvos zurückzuführen wären, wurden nicht beobachtet. Auch die Ultrastruktur der Lungengewebe von Kontrollratten und der Ratten in 5 mg/m3 zeigte keine Veränderungen, die von Dichlorvos abhängig waren. Die Ergebnisse einer “relative risk analysis” der vorliegenden Tumorversuchsreihe haben keine dosisabhängige Erhöhung des Tumorrisikos für Ratten beider Geschlechter gezeigt. Die Befunde sind in Übereinstimmung mit früheren und sprechen für die Unbedenklichkeit des Gebrauchs von Dichlorvos als Insektizid.
    Notes: Summary To determine the effects of dichlorvos vapour on the tumour incidence in rats, 5 week old Carworth Farm E strain rats weighing between 94 and 150 g were exposed to 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 5.0 mg/m3 in a 2-year inhalation study. The growth rate of all treated rats was depressed, particularly in the males. There was increased survival of the rats exposed to 5 mg/m3. There were no consistent differences in food intakes, organ weights, haematological or blood chemistry estimations, except in cholinesterase activities, amongst the various groups of rats. No compound-related differences were seen in acetylcholine and choline estimations carried out on a small number of female rats' brain tissues after two years' exposure. There were no gross or microscopical compound-related changes in the rats' tissues. Ultrastructural examination of the respiratory tissues of the rats from the control and 5 mg/m3 group showed no changes attributable to dichlorvos. The results of a relative risk analysis of the tumour data showed that no dose-related increase in tumour risk was established for rats of either sex. These data confirm the results of earlier studies supporting the safety of insecticidal uses of dichlorvos.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0020-708X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0020-7519
    Keywords: Aspidobothrea ; Calicophoron ; Digenea ; Echinostoma ; Fasciolopsis ; Gyliauchen ; Lobatostoma ; Opisthorchis ; Schistosoma ; Tetracerasta ; nucleotide sequence data ; oral sucker ; parsimony analysis ; pharynx ; phylogeny ; polymerase chain reaction ; small-subunit rRNA
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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