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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6776
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Mitochondrially bound hexokinases are often found in cells exhibiting high rates of glycolysis. These enzymes have kinetic and regulatory properties that differ from cytosolic hexokinases. In this work, we present preliminary findings for a mitochondrially bound hexokinase in a murine hybridoma that is relatively insensitive to glucose-6-phosphate inhibition when compared to the cytosolic hexokinase. Additional regulatory data on the effects of glucose-1,6-diphosphate and adenosine diphosphate on both the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of this enzyme are also presented.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6776
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The enzyme alkaline phosphatase, EC 3. 1. 3. 1, was found to be active in a supercritical carbo dioxide solvent system. A batch reaction of disodium p-nitrophenyl phosphate with a 0.1 vol. % water solution in supercritical CO2 at 100 atm and 35°C produced p-nitrophenol when catalyzed by alkaline phosphatase.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6776
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with cell recycle was used to produce lactic acid from glucose usingLactobacillus delbreuckii NRRLB445. A volumetric productivity of 76 gm/1-h was obtained with an effluent concentration of 35 gm/1 lactic acid and a residual glucose concentration of less than 0.02 gm/l.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 1 (1981), S. 351-364 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A general view of the possibilities of producing ethanol from sugar, starch and cellulose feedstocks is given.For the 3 variants net energy analysis of ethanol production and evaluation of costs are presented. With the exception of the case using molasses as feedstock the net energy balances are positive.The greatest possible net energy yield can be expected with sugar cane followed by sugar beets, wood and paper waste. Based on feedstock availability, net energy utilization and production costs, the most promising processes for producing ethanol from non-grain feedstocks over the next 20 years will be those processes using fermentable sugars available from nongrain starchy materials, cellulosics and whey.The feedstock prices for cellulosics are low and if the developments in cellulose hydrolysis will lead to improve the ethanol yields from cellulose fermentation to nearer 90 percent of the theoretical value, cellulosic materials can become a good feedstock for ethanol production.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berlin : Wiley-Blackwell
    Acta Biotechnologica 1 (1981), S. 31-40 
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Die Xylanaseproduktion durch Streptomyces xylophagus nov. sp. wurde im Schü ttelkolben und in einem 14-Liter-Laborfermentor in diskontinuierlicher und in kontinuierlicher Kultur untersucht. Die maximale Enzymausbeute wurde auf 1%igem handelsü blichen Xylanmedium bei 30°C durch 7,5%ige ü berimpfung einer 5 Tage alten Xylankultur erreicht, wobei dem Medium im Schü ttelkolben 0,8% und dem Submersfermentor 0,3% Bactopepton zugestzt wurden. Die maximale Xylanaseproduktion wurde bei pH 7,4 erreicht. Eine Hitzbehandlung bis zu 200°C wirkte sich nicht hemmend auf die Xylanaseproduktion aus.Die Gleichgewichtsparameter fü r die Zellmasse, lösliches Protein und die Xylanaseaktivitä t wurden in Abhä ngigkeit der Verdü nnungsraten von 0,02 bis 0,04 h+1 bestimmt, wobei Xylan (wood gum xylan) als Kohlenstoffquelle diente. Die maximale Enzymaktivitä t und Produktivitä t von 7,2 X.U. (1 xylanase unit, X.U. ≙ 1 mg reduzierter Zucker, der aus 1 ml Enzym in 15 Minuten bei 50°C gebildet wird) und 0,194 X.U./h wurden bei einer Verdü nnungsrate von 0,027 h+1 beobachtet.Die maximale Zellkonzentration und Produktivitä t von 7,2 g/l und 0,245 g/lh wurden bei einer Verdü nnungsrate von 0,34 h+1 beobachtet.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 113 (2000), S. 3360-3365 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Statistical-thermodynamic theory for predicting the phase behavior of a colloidal solution requires the pair interaction potential between colloidal particles in solution. In practice, it is necessary to assume pairwise additivity for the potential of mean force between colloidal particles, but little is known concerning the validity of this assumption. This paper concerns interaction between small charged colloids, such as surfactant micelles or globular proteins, in electrolyte solutions and the multibody effect on phase behavior. Monte Carlo simulations for isolated colloidal triplets in equilateral configurations show that, while the three-body force is repulsive when the three particles are near contact, it becomes short-ranged attractive at further separations, contrary to a previous study where the triplet force is attractive at all separations. The three-body force arises mainly from hard-sphere collisions between colloids and small ions; it is most significant in solutions of monovalent salt at low concentration where charged colloids experience strong electrostatic interactions. To illustrate the effect of three-body forces on the phase behavior of charged colloids, we calculated the densities of coexisting phases using van der Waals-type theories for colloidal solutions and for crystals. For the conditions investigated in this work, even though the magnitude of the three-body force may be as large as 10% of the total force at small separations, three-body forces do not have a major effect on the densities of binary coexisting phases. However, coexisting densities calculated using Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek theory are much different from those calculated using our simulated potential of mean force. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Potential of mean force ; proteins ; salts ; intermolecular interactions ; precipitation ; crystallization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Osmotic pressures have been measured to determine lysozyme—lysozyme,BSA—BSA, and lysosyme—BSA interactions for protein concentrations to 100 g-L−1in an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate at ambient temperature, as a functionof ionic strength and pH. Osmotic second virial coefficients for lysozyme, forBSA, and for a mixture of BSA and lysozyme were calculated from theosmotic-pressure data for protein concentrations to 40 g-L−1. The osmotic second virialcoefficient of lysozyme is slightly negative and becomes more negative withrising ionic strength and pH. The osmotic second virial coefficient for BSA isslightly positive, increasing with ionic strength and pH. The osmotic second virialcross coefficient of the mixture lies between the coefficients for lysozyme andBSA, indicating that the attractive forces for a lysozyme—BSA pair areintermediate between those for the lysozyme—lysozyme and BSA—BSA pairs. For proteinconcentrations less than 100 g-L−1, experimental osmotic-pressure data comparefavorably with results from an adhesive hard-sphere model, which has previouslybeen shown to fit osmotic compressibilities of lysozyme solutions.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Company
    Nature biotechnology 10 (1992), S. 1550-1556 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] Whereas cell concentrations of 5–10 grams dry cell weight per liter (gDCW/1) are typical of batch cultures, fed-batch techniques can be used to achieve concentrations greater than 50 gDCW/1. Feeding strategies for fed-batch cultures include feedback control as well as pre-determined feeding ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 41 (1995), S. 996-1004 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Salting-out phase equilibria are reported for lysozyme and α-chymotrypsin from concentrated ammonium-sulfate solutions. Supernatant and dense-phase protein concentrations and the resulting protein partition coefficients are given as a function of solution pH and ionic strength. Phase equilibria with a trivalent salt (sodium citrate) confirm that ionic strength, rather than salt concentration, is the appropriate variable describing phase equilibria. The salting-out behavior of a mixture of an aqueous lysozyme and α-chymotrypsin is independent of the presence of the other protein.Parameters for a molecular-thermodynamic description of salting-out behavior are obtained from low-angle laser-light scattering (LALLS). Osmotic second virial coefficients from LALLS are reported over a range of pH for dilute chymotrypsin concentrations in aqueous electrolyte solutions at 0.01 and 1.0 M ionic strengths. Effective Hamaker constants, regressed from experimental osmotic second virial coefficients, are determined for models of the protein - protein potential of mean force. In addition to excluded volume, dispersion, and shielded charge - charge potentials, the description of protein - protein interactions includes attractive charge - dipole and dipole - dipole potentials as well as an osmotic-attraction potential that becomes important at high salt concentrations. Protein dipole - dipole potentials are required to account for the observed pH dependence of osmotic second virial coefficients, especially at low ionic strength.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 41 (1995), S. 2150-2159 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A molecular-thermodynamic model is developed for salt-induced protein precipitation, which considers an aqueous solution of globular protein molecules as a pseudo-one-component system containing macroions that interact through Coulombic repulsion, dispersion attraction and hydrophobic interactions, and forces arising from ion-excluded volume. Forces from ion-excluded volume take into account formation of ion pairs and ionic clusters at high salt concentrations; they are calculated in the context of the Percus-Yevick integral-equation theory. Hydrophobic interactions between exposed nonpolar amino-acid residues on the surfaces of the protein molecules are modeled as short-range, attractive interactions between “spherical caps” on the surfaces of the protein polyions. An equation of state is derived using perturbation theory. From this equation of state we calculate liquid - liquid equilibria: equilibrium between an aqueous phase dilute in protein and another aqueous phase rich in protein, which represents “precipitated” protein. In the equation of state, center-to-center, spherically symmetric macroion-macroion interactions are described by the random-phase approximation, while the orientation-dependent short-range hydrophobic interaction is incorporated through the perturbation theory of associating fluids. The results suggest that either ion-excluded-volume or hydrophobic-bonding effects can precipitate proteins in aqueous solutions with high salt concentrations.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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