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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2009-11-18
    Description: Protein catabolism should be reduced and protein synthesis promoted with parenteral nutrion (PN). Amino acid (AA) solutions should always be infused with PN. Standard AA solutions are generally used, whereas specially adapted AA solutions may be required in certain conditions such as severe disorders of AA utilisation or in inborn errors of AA metabolism. An AA intake of 0.8 g/kg/day is generally recommended for adult patients with a normal metabolism, which may be increased to 1.2-1.5 g/kg/day, or to 2.0 or 2.5 g/kg/day in exceptional cases. Sufficient non-nitrogen energy sources should be added in order to assure adequate utilisation of AA. A nitrogen calorie ratio of 1:130 to 1:170 (g N/kcal) or 1:21 to 1:27 (g AA/kcal) is recommended under normal metabolic conditions. In critically ill patients glutamine should be administered parenterally if indicated in the form of peptides, for example 0.3-0.4 g glutamine dipeptide/kg body weight/day (=0.2-0.26 g glutamine/kg body weight/day). No recommendation can be made for glutamine supplementation in PN for patients with acute pancreatitis or after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and in newborns. The application of arginine is currently not warranted as a supplement in PN in adults. N-acetyl AA are only of limited use as alternative AA sources. There is currently no indication for use of AA solutions with an increased content of glycine, branched-chain AAs (BCAA) and ornithine-alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) in all patients receiving PN. AA solutions with an increased proportion of BCAA are recommended in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (III-IV).
    Description: Ein Proteinkatabolismus soll bei parenteraler Ernährung (PE) vermindert und anabole Stoffwechselprozesse gefördert werden. Standard-Aminosäure (AS)-Lösungen werden empfohlen, falls nicht in Sondersituationen z. B. bei schweren AS-Verwertungsstörungen oder bei angeborenen Stoffwechselstörungen spezifisch adaptierte AS-Lösungen eingesetzt werden müssen. Für erwachsene Patienten in ausgeglichenem Stoffwechselzustand wird eine AS-Zufuhr von 0,8 g/kg/Tag empfohlen, die auf 1,2-1,5 g/kg/Tag oder in Ausnahmefällen auch auf 2,0-2,5 g/kg/Tag gesteigert werden kann. Zur Gewährleistung einer angemessenen Utilisation von AS sollten ausreichend Nicht-Stickstoff-Energieträger zugegeben werden. Das angestrebte Verhältnis zwischen Stickstoff- und Energiezufuhr (Stickstoff-Kalorien-Verhältnis) sollte unter Normalbedingungen 1:100-1:130 (g N:kcal) bzw. 1:16-1:21 (g AS:kcal) betragen. Glutamin sollte parenteral bei kritisch Kranken, sofern indiziert, in Form von Peptiden verabreicht werden, wie z.B. 0,3-0,4 g Glutamin-Dipepetid/kg KG/Tag (entsprechend 0,2-0,26 g Glutamin/kg KG/Tag). Für Patienten mit akuter Pankreatitis, nach Knochenmarkstransplantation sowie für Neugeborene kann derzeit keine Empfehlung für eine Glutaminsupplementierung mit der PE ausgesprochen werden. Der Einsatz von Arginin als Supplement in der PE beim Erwachsenen ist derzeit nicht gerechtfertigt. Den N-azetylierten AS kommen als alternative Aminosäurenquellen zur Zeit nur eine begrenzte Bedeutung zu. Für eine generelle Verwendung von AS-Lösungen mit einem erhöhten Gehalt von Glyzin und verzweigtkettigten AS (VKAS) wie auch für Ornithin-alpha-Ketoglutarat (OKG) besteht keine gesicherte Indikation. Die Wirksamkeit von AS-Lösungen mit erhöhtem Anteil an VKAS in der Behandlung der hepatischen Enzephalopathie (III-IV) wird empfohlen.
    Keywords: amino acids ; branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) ; dipeptide ; amino acid metabolism (first pass) ; Aminosäuren ; verzweigtkettige Aminosäuren ; Dipeptide ; Aminosäuremetabolismus ; ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: article
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Crohn's disease is complicated by fistulas in 20–40% of patients at some time during the course of their illness. Azathioprine has been reported to heal fistulas in 30–40% of cases. Long-lasting effects by the anti-tumour necrosis factor-α antibody infliximab most often require repeated infusions. Methotrexate has been shown to be an effective drug in maintaining remission in Crohn's disease.Aim : To evaluate the combination of infliximab and methotrexate as therapy for fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease.Methods : Twelve consecutive patients (mean age, 29.5 years) with fistulizing Crohn's disease resistant or intolerant to azathioprine were followed prospectively. Patients received three infusions of infliximab (5 mg/kg) and long-term methotrexate (20 mg/week). Therapy success was defined as sustained closure of fistulas ≥ 6 months after fistula closure.Results : In four of the 12 patients, complete closure of fistulas that persisted for ≥ 6 months (median follow-up, 13.25 months) was observed. In three further patients, a partial response was noted. In five patients, persistent therapy success could not be achieved or therapy had to be stopped due to side-effects.Conclusions : A combination of infliximab with long-term methotrexate may be a promising concept in fistulizing Crohn's disease. Our data indicate the need for larger controlled trials.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Abstract: Guidelines recommend early colonoscopy for individuals with a positive family history of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known about the utilization of colonoscopy and the frequency of colorectal neoplasms among younger affected individuals in Germany. The aim of this study was to determine the utilization of colonoscopy and the frequency of colorectal neoplasms in this risk group. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a general practice setting. Patients aged 40-54 years with at least one first-degree relative with CRC were identified, counseled on their increased risk, and referred to colonoscopy if they decided to undergo this procedure. We assessed the reported utilization of colonoscopy before study participation with a questionnaire and obtained results of colonoscopies performed during the study period from colonoscopy reports. Out of 484 patients with a positive family history of CRC, 191 (39.5%) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and participated in the study: 54% reported that at least one colonoscopy had been performed before study participation. Out of 191 participants, 86 (45%) underwent a colonoscopy during study period. No CRC was found, but 16.3% had any adenoma, and 7.0% had advanced adenomas. Overall, 155 (82%) study participants underwent a colonoscopy either before or during the study period. The utilization of colonoscopies among participants was remarkably high even before study participation. This rate increased up to 82% after counseling by general practitioners. A relevant number of participants had (advanced) adenomas. It appears worthwhile to involve general practitioners in identifying and counseling younger individuals with familial risk for CRC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28692588
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