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  • 1
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Controlled drug delivery ; RG2 experimental glioma ; amsacrine ; polymer implant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The purpose of this study was to fabricate and investigate amsacrine containing polymeric rods for use in interstitial chemotherapy of malignant glioma. Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVAc) rods containing 40% amsacrine (AMSA) were fabricated successfully with an extrusion method. In vitro kinetic studies revealed a high level of reproducibility of the production process. The release of AMSA showed a biphasic pattern consistent with a matrix-type controlled-release system with an initial more rapid release rate followed by a slower and more linear release phase. Release of AMSA was observed for over 6 months and the rods continue to release in a stable fashion. In vitro studies using rat glioma (RG2) in cell culture showed that cells treated with AMSA released from the rods were killed in a dose dependent manner indicating that AMSA incorporated into the polymer remained biologically active. In vivo studies of rats with single AMSA rods implanted five days after RG2 tumour implantation revealed histological evidence of an antitumour effect as well as an increased survival (p 〈 0.0003). The mean survival of the amsacrine treated rats was 78 days with 50% still remaining alive 〉 5 months after implantation. All control animals developed tumours and died within 15–19 days after tumour implantation (mean=17 days). Amsacrine implanted animals showed no significant histological or clinical evidence of toxicity. We conclude that amsacrine containing EVAc rods can be safely and efficaciously used against the RG2 experimental glioma in a rat model and warrant further investigation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Pain ; thalamotomy ; radiosurgery
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Thalamotomy aiming at the CM-Pf complex and using stereotactic gamma irradiation has been performed in a series of 52 patients with severe pain due to malignancy. Lesions were produced either contra- or ipsilaterally to the side of the pain as well as bilaterally. Eight patients experienced good pain relief, 18 had moderate relief, and in 24 the operation did not significantly influence the pain. A second operation following recurrence of pain was rarely of value. There was a tendency towards more efficient relief of pain located in the face or in the arm and shoulder than of pain in the lower part of the body. Although contralateral lesions seem to be most effective, ipsilateral operations may also give some relief. The best results were obtained when the lesions were placed close to the wall of the third ventricle and at the level of the posterior commissure. Postmortem examination of 21 brains disclosed that the mean error in the placing of the lesions was about 1 mm. It is concluded that medial thalamotomy may be tried as a last resort in the treatment of cancer pain in selected patients with a short life expectancy.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Somatomedins ; brain tumour ; brain tumour marker ; Insuline-like growth factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the present study, the levels of the growth-promoting hormones, somatomedins, were analysed in tumour cyst fluid, CSF, and tumour cytosol, collected from 22 unselected patients with intracranial tumours. All samples contained somatomedin activity. 5/7 CSF samples, taken from patients with tumour mass visible on CT, showed elevated concentrations. 6/9 cyst fluid samples, taken from patients with glioma were elevated compared with normal serum somatomedin levels. Tumour cytosol, taken from 7 patients with malignant glioma contained somatomedins in an elevated level compared with values previously analysed from normal adult brains. These preliminary findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of somatomedins in brain tumours and suggest the use of somatomedins as a possible brain tumour marker.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words Epidermal growth factor ; Murine monoclonal antibody ; Glioma ; Immunotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Malignant glioblastoma may over-express the epidermal-growth-factor receptor (EGF-R). Normal brain cells show a low or no expression of EGF-R. A mouse monoclonal antibody (IgG2A) (mAb 425) (EMD55900) (Merck KGaA, Bernstadt, Germany) directed against EGF-R was produced for therapeutic use. Eight patients with primary or recurrent, EGF-R-positive glioblastomas entered the study, which was designed to evaluate the clinical effect of the mAb. In order to achieve a high tumor cell saturation, the mAb was injected intratumorally twice weekly through an implantable catheter. The total administered dose varied between 4 mg and 120 mg. In 3 patients with solid tumors, a massive tumor necrosis was noted, with infiltration of macrophages, granulocytes and T cells. A further 3 patients developed clinical and radiological signs of an intense, local, inflammatory reaction. There may be a relation between the mAb dosage and the antitumor effect, insofar as higher doses seemed to cause a more pronounced, inflammatory reaction. Of the 8 patients, 6 developed human, anti-(mouse Ig) antibodies. This anti-EGF-R mAb may induce an intense, inflammatory reaction and a considerable necrosis in glioblastoma. However, the planned schedule could not be completed, even after the dose level was re-adjusted, owing to inflammatory reactions, which were severe without prior tumor debulking.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Glioblastoma multiforme ; human ; interferon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This report presents the results of a phase I trial of the value of human leucocyte inferon-alpha in the treatment of glioblastoma. Twelve patients entered the trial. In one case we believe that the patient benefitted from the interferon treatment. CT scans of patients on interferon did not reveal the true extent of the tumorous tissue.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 226 (1970), S. 865-866 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The present study shows that, in a diurnal butterfly (Heliconius erato), such a mechanism in the transmission system to the photoreceptors selectively enhances the stimulating effect of light within a certain wavelength region, of which the hue represents the releasing factor for a well described ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This study was carried out in order to obtain data on the relation between tumour structures seen in computer tomograms and the corresponding histopathology and cytology. Nine consecutive patients were studied, and stereotactic biopsies were obtained from sites determined on contrast enhanced computer tomograms. Biopsies were obtained from tumour areas with high and low contrast uptake and from the low attenuating areas surrounding the tumours. The results indicated a close correlation between the microscopical morphology of gliomas and the pattern of the computer tomogram. Biopsy samples from low-uptake central areas contained tumour tissue, necrotic tissue, and in one case a cyst. Biopsies from high-uptake areas typically contained tumour tissue, whereas biopsies from low-uptake surrounding areas contained oedematous non-tumour tissue. For tumour diagnosis biopsies should be obtained from both low and high attenuating tumour areas.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neurochirurgica 65 (1982), S. 51-60 
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Thirteen patients with expanding mass lesions underwent postoperative serial CT scanning after frontal lobe resection. Cases with malignant tumours and significant preoperative oedema showed a rapid postoperative filling of the resection cavity which presumably reflects increased intracranial pressure. Cases with more benign lesions without significant preoperative oedema continuously maintained an empty resection cavity. The results suggest that the clinical outcome after frontal lobe resection can be predicted from preoperative CT scans.
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  • 9
  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Computed tomography, head ; Stereotaxic techniques ; Head fixation system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A head fixation system is described enabling exact transfer of positions between neuroradiological and therapeutic procedures. The key item of the system is a base plate that is rigidly attached to the patient's head, either by a plastic mould or screws onto the calvarium. The base plate may easily and accurately be attached to diagnostic or therapeutic units. Coordinates of target points in the various units are directly related through the exact application of the base plate. Procedures for the exact comparison of spatial information have been worked out. The system has been used for diagnostic procedures such as plain skull radiography, cerebral angiography, CT scanning, positron emission tomography, and gamma camera examinations, as well as for therapeutic procedures such as stereotaxic biopsy and radiation treatment.
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