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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 60 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Addition of tert-butylhydroquinone or a mixture of butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinone (200 ppm on a lipid basis) during SPI processing gave increased protein solibility over that of the control (55%. 56% and 34%. respectively). These increased solubilities correspond to 32% and 18% decrease in oxidation of free sulfhydryls and 20% and 12% reduction in protein oxidation, as determined by protein carbonyl content. Increased protein solubilities, due to added antioxidants, were accompanied by higher total protein surface hydrophobicity, as determined by the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) binding method, and soluble protein hydrophobicity, as determined by the fluorescence probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 68 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : Concentrations of hexanal, methanethiol, 2-pentyl furan and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) in the headspace above aqueous soy protein isolates (SPI) slurries were quantified through gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Simulation of the characteristic odor of SPI was attempted by combining these 4 odorants in water to recreate headspace concentrations found above the aqueous slurries of SPI. Sensory characteristics of the combined odorants were compared with each individual odorants. The mixture of combined odorants was perceived to possess more resemblance to the characteristic odor of SPI than any individual odorant and was rated a 5 on a 10-point scale. A 2nd sensory evaluation showed that 2-pentyl furan suppressed the perceived intensity of DMTS.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 65 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : Using stable isotopic 13C-2,4-decadienal and 15N-ammonia, both compounds were confirmed as precursors in the formation of 2-pentyl pyridine (2-pp) in processing of soybean protein isolates (SPI). The yields of 2-pp were higher when adding 2,4-decadienal and ammonia together than the yields when adding 2,4-decadienal only for soybean cultivars Stress land, LOX null, Edison, and KS4694. Arginine, lysine, asparagine, and glutamine increased 2-pp when added together with 2,4-decadienal, whereas aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, and histidine had no effects. In both buffer and defatted soybean slurry, the highest level of 2-pp was found at pH 9, followed by pH 7, then pH 4.5. The results indicate that the synthesis of 2-pp may be a spontaneous reaction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: With the addition of antioxidants, spray-dried soy protein isolates (SPI) exhibited increased solubilities by 8% over the control in 0.1M NaCl. Increased solubilities corresponded to a 15% and 8% reduction in protein oxidation as determined by protein carbonyl contents. The greatest differences in solubility between a spray-dried SPI with antioxidant (66% protein solubility) and the control (54% protein solubility), as well as the minimum protein solubility, occurred in 0.2M NaCl. Following the initial solubilization step in SPI processing, amount of extracted proteins was increased by 4.5% over the control with addition of antioxidants. Gel fracturability, hardness and adhesiveness for heat set gels of 12% SPI processed with added antioxidants were increased by 26.3%, 23.5% and 24.6%, respectively.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 64 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Levels of 2-pentyl pyridine (2-pp) in protein fractions from Stressland soybeans increased to 0.868 ppm (±0.027) at pH 7 after removing insoluble components from defatted flours. If similar protein fractions were held at pH 4.5 or pH 9, the 2-pp concentration was 0.182 ppm (± 0.003) or 0.199 ppm (± 0.003), respectively. Soybean cultivars KS4694, Edison, and a type null for lipoxygenase 1, 2, and 3 showed similar changes. The increase at pH 7 occurred in less than 1 h. If the defatted flour solution was not subjected to alkaline extraction to remove insoluble components, the increase of 2-pp at neutral pH did not occur. Thus, the pH conditions should be carefully controlled to produce soybean protein isolates with desired flavor properties.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 68 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: :Aqueous slurries of 6 commercial soy protein concentrate (SPC) contained from 9.8 to 21.7 ppb methanethiol, which corresponds to odor values (in water) of 49 to 108. Effects of temperature (5.5, 24, and 65°C), pH (4.8,6.6, and 9.0), transition metals (FeCl3, FeCl2, and CuCl2), lipoxygenase, and EDTA on methanethiol levels in SPC slurries were investigated. Higher temperature (65°C), basic pH (9.0), transition metals, lipoxygenase, and EDTA caused significant increases in methanethiol compared with the control. CuCl2 caused greater increases in methanethiol than FeCl3 and FeCl2. In contrast, treatments with lower temperature (5.5°C) or acidic pH (4.8) resulted in lower levels of methanethiol in all commercial SPC samples examined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : The binding properties of 2-pentyl pyridine (2-pp) were investigated for soybean protein isolates (SPI) and the beta-conglycinin and glycinin soy protein fractions. The glycinin fraction had the highest binding affinities for 2-pp, followed by beta-conglycinin fraction, and then SPI. More 2-pp was bound by SPI and beta-conglycinin or glycinin fractions under alkaline conditions than under neutral conditions, which exhibited more binding than acidic conditions. More 2-pp was also bound at high temperature (74 °C) than at 25 °C, but greater binding affinity of 2-pp was observed at 4 °C than at 25 °C. With increased NaCl concentrations, the binding affinity of 2-pp decreased. Exposure to UV light increased binding of 2-pp to all types of soy protein.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 66 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : Gas chromatography olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GCO/MS) studies on static and concentrated headspace of the aqueous slurries from soy protein concentrate (SPC) revealed acetaldehyde, methanethiol, hexanal, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), and 2-pentyl furan as the most odorous volatiles. Further aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the volatile extracts identified the following as the odorous substances: hexanal, 2-heptanone, octanal, 2-octanone, 1-octen-3-one, DMTS, 3-octen-2-one, 2-decanone, benzaldehyde, 2-pentyl pyridine and trans, trans-2,4- nonadienal, along with several unidentified odorants. Methanethiol and acetaldehyde, which have low boiling points, were not detected by AEDA, however. This is the first time that acetaldehyde, methanethiol, and dimethyl trisulfide have been identified as primary odorants in SPC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 65 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Volatile compounds from 2 samples of aqueous soy-protein isolates (SPI) (7%) were analyzed using both static and dynamic headspace methods. Based on dynamic headspace analyses, the most powerful odorants were (1) dimethyl trisulfide, (2) methanethiol, (3) hexanal, (4) an unidentified charred, sweaty feet-like odor, (5) 2-pentyl furan, (6) 2,3-butadione, and (7) an unknown burnt-like odor. The most powerful odorants by static headspace analyses were (1) dimethyl trisulfide, (2) hexanal, (3) methanethiol, and (4) 2-pentyl furan. Using deuterium labeled DMTS as an internal standard, DMTS was quantified at 60.1 and 45.5 ppb in the SPIs. This corresponds to odor values of 6014 and 4554, respectively. Using a cool, on-column technique, direct injection of concentrated-headspace volatiles and solvent-recovered volatiles with an internal standard of d6-DMTS detected both methanethiol and DMTS at similar levels as with the traditional injection methods.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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