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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-5196
    Keywords: Key words Adipocere ; Brain ; Retroorbital fatty ; tissue ; Computed tomography ; Schlüsselwörter Leichenlipid ; Adipocire ; Gehirn ; Retroorbitalfettgewebe ; Computertomographie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Anhand von 3 Beobachtungen aus dem rechtsmedizinischen Sektionsgut werden verschiedene Manifestationsformen von Leichenlipid im Kopfbereich vorgestellt: In einem Fall wurde das gesamte Gehirn nach 6jähriger Wasserliegezeit in gutem Erhaltungszustand vorgefunden. In zwei Fällen war das Retroorbitalfett in Leichenlipid umgewandelt, wobei jeweils Aussparungen im Verlauf der Nn. optici und der Augenmuskeln bestanden. Bei zwei Leichen waren auch die Wangenweichteile partiell in Adipocire transformiert. Vor der autoptischen Schädelöffnung wurden computertomographische Untersuchungen durchgeführt. Das in toto erhalten gebliebene Gehirn zeigte im CT deutlich abgrenzbare Binnenstrukturen; die Dichtemessungen des ehemaligen Hirnparenchyms ergaben Hounsfield-Einheiten im Bereich von Fettmischgewebe. In einem weiteren Fall war lediglich eine amorphe Weichteilmasse darstellbar.
    Notes: Abstract On the basis of three observations from forensic autopsies, different forms of manifestation of adipocere in the head region are presented. In one case the entire brain was found to be well preserved after the body had been immersed in water for 6 years. In two cases the retroorbital fatty tissue had been converted into adipocere, avoiding the Nn. optici and the eye muscles. In two bodies the soft tissue of the cheeks was also partially transformed to adipocere. Before opening the skull at autopsy scans by computed tomography were performed. The brain, which had been preserved in toto, showed clearly definable internal structures by CT and density measurements of the former brain parenchyma showed Hounsfield units in the range of mixed fatty tissue. In another case only an amorphous brain mass could be visualised.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-5196
    Keywords: Key words Colorimetry ; CIE-L*a*b* ; Colour ; measuring system ; Narcotics ; Cocaine ; Extenders ; Substance comparison ; Schlüsselwörter Farbmetrik ; CIE-L*a*b* ; Btm-Substanzen ; Kokain ; Streckmittel ; Substanzvergleich
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung An pulvrigen Substanzen von weißer bis leicht gelblicher Färbung wurden Farbmessungen mit der Absicht durchgeführt, die Proben optisch eindeutig zu beschreiben und vorhandenen Vergleichsproben zuzuordnen. Die Messungen wurden mit einem Spektrophotometer der Firma Carl-Zeiss-Jena GmbH (MCS 400) mit einer Halogenlampe als Lichtquelle (Normlicht D65) vorgenommen. Zur farbmetrischen Klassifizierung dienten die CIE-L*a*b*-Maßzahlen. Neben Kokain-Proben unterschiedlicher Zusammensetzung wurden auch verschiedene Streckmittel untersucht. Die durchgeführten Untersuchungen zeigten, daß makroskopisch nicht unterscheidbare Proben gleichartiger bzw. unterschiedlicher chemischer Zusammensetzung charakteristische Unterschiede in den CIE-L*a*b*-Maßzahlen aufwiesen. Die Methode erbringt innerhalb weniger Minuten einen orientierenden Hinweis beim Substanzvergleich von Proben unterschiedlicher Herkunft.
    Notes: Abstract Colour measurements were performed on powdery substances of whitish to slightly yellow colouring (cocaine samples of different composition) in order to give an unequivocal optical description of the samples and relate them to control samples. The measurements were carried out with a spectrophotometer (Carl-Zeiss-Jena GmbH, MCS 400) using a halogen bulb as light source (standard illuminant D65). Colorimetric classification was made on the basis of the CIE-L*a*b*-values. The examination showed that specimens of similar or different chemical composition which could not be distinguished macroscopically revealed characteristic differences in the CIE-L*a*b*-measures. The method gives a first clue for orientation within a few minutes when comparing substances in specimens of different origin.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Rechtsmedizin 8 (1998), S. 207-211 
    ISSN: 1434-5196
    Keywords: Key words Colorimetry ; Hair colour ; Hair analysis ; Melanin ; Schlüsselwörter Farbmetrik ; Haarfarbe ; Haaranalytik ; Melanin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Ein wesentlicher Parameter für den Einbau von Medikamentenwirkstoffen und Betäubungsmitteln in das Kopfhaar ist der Gehalt an Haarpigmenten (Melanine). Bei der toxikologischen Haaranalytik sollte daher die Haarfarbe berücksichtigt werden. Da für deren verbale Charakterisierung nur ein geringer Wortschatz zur Verfügung steht und die Beschreibung vom subjektiven Eindruck des Betrachters abhängig ist, sollte geprüft werden, ob eine Objektivierung der Haarfarbe mit farbmetrischen Untersuchungen gelingt. Hierfür wurde bei 17 Probanden die natürliche Haarfarbe subjektiv-verbal und durch Vergleich mit einer Haarfarbtafel (Fa. Wella, Darmstadt) beschrieben. Anschließend wurden die Farben der Probanden-Haare und der Haartafel-Vergleichsproben nach dem Spektralverfahren farbmetrisch gemessen und die CIEL*a*b*-Werte bestimmt. Die deskriptive Einordnung der Haarfarben in die üblichen Kategorien (blond, braun, schwarz) ließ sich anhand der Farbmaßzahlen oft nicht nachvollziehen. Auch zwischen den Farbwerten der natürlichen Haare und der entsprechenden Vergleichsproben waren z.T. große Abweichungen festzustellen. Bei Wiederholungen der spektrophotometrischen Farb-Messungen im Abstand von wenigen Tagen zeigte sich, daß die Ergebnisse reproduzierbar waren.
    Notes: Abstract An essential parameter for the incorporation of drugs and narcotics into head hair is the content of hair pigment (melanins). Toxicological studies of hair should therefore take the colour of the hair into consideration. As the available vocabulary for verbal characterisation is small and the description depends on the subjective opinion of the viewer, it was the purpose of this study to investigate if colorimetric measurements allow objectivation of hair colour. The natural hair colour of 17 subjects was described subjectively in words and by comparing it with a hair colour chart (Wella, Darmstadt, Germany). Subsequently the colours of the hair and the samples of the hair colour chart used for comparison were measured by colorimetric analysis and the CIEL*a*b* values were determined. The descriptive categorisation of the hair colours (e.g. blonde, brown, black) could often not be recognised in the colorimetric results. Sometimes considerable differences were also found between the colour values of the natural hair samples and the specimens used for comparison. When the colour measurements were repeated at intervals of several days the results were found to be reproducible.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: Key words Contusion ; Intradermal bruise ; Subcutaneous bruise ; Colorimetry ; Optical properties ; Skin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Notes: Abstract Spectrophotometric measurements were performed on intra- and/or subcutaneous bruises occurring in direct temporal connection with peracute fatal trauma. The purpose of these measurements was to determine whether the visual colour impression of a fresh traumatic extravasation can give information on the localisation of the haemorrhage in a certain tissue layer. After visual assessment of the colour of the bruise, the spectral reflectance curves and the CIE-L*a*b* colour values were determined with the help of a diode array spectrophotometer. The localisation and size of the haemorrhages in the cutis and/or subcutis were evaluated morphologically after incision of the skin. It was confirmed that there is a relationship between the colour impression and the localisation of the bruise. Bruises localised near the surface have a more reddish appearance while bruises in deeper layers give a more bluish colour impression. An explanation may be found in the optical characteristics of skin. Blood localised in the subcutis appears blue on the surface due to scattering processes in the dermis (Rayleigh scattering), as the blue wavelengths of the light are scattered (and thus reflected) to a greater extent than the red wavelengths.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: Key words Brain injury ; Cortical contusion ; Inflammatory reaction ; Immunohistochemistry ; Wound ; age
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Notes: Abstract The time-dependent inflammatory cell reaction in human cortical contusions has been investigated during the first 30 weeks after blunt head injury. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out using CD 15 for granulocytes and LCA, CD 3 and UCHL-1 for mononuclear leucocytes. In order to provide reliable data for a forensic wound age estimation, the intensity of the cellular reaction was evaluated with a quantitative image analysis system. CD 15-labelled granulocytes were detectable earliest 10 min after brain injury, whereas significantly increased numbers of mononuclear leucocytes occurred in cortical contusions after a postinfliction interval of at least 1.1 days (LCA), 2 days (CD 3) or 3.7 days (UCHL-1), respectively.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: Key words Ultraviolet light ; UV fluorescence ; Myocardium ; Autopsy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Notes: Abstract The application of ultraviolet light in forensic practice is a well-tested method to visualise traces or skin alterations. When viewing myocardial sections under UV light at autopsy, bluish-white fluorescent areas became visible that could not be detected in the seemingly homogenous myocardium in daylight. A systematic comparison of the macroscopic cardiac findings and the pertinent histological sections showed that in all cases with a positive UV fluorescence myocardial fibrosis or lipomatosis could be confirmed by histological methods. The examination for UV fluorescence of the myocardium seems to be a simple and rapid method improving the macroscopic perceptibility of fibrotic changes and minor scars.
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