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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: pethidine ; drug metabolism ; pethidine metabolites ; renal excretion ; pharmacokinetics ; geriatrics ; old age ; meperidine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a previous study old subjects were found to eliminate pethidine and its active metabolite norpethidine more slowly than young people. To investigate whether this was due to the decline in renal function with age, the urinary output of pethidine and its metabolites pethidinic acid, norpethidine and norpethidinic acid was compared in old and young patients. The cumulative urinary excretion of pethidine and pethidinic acid over 24 h was similar in old and young patients. The slower elimination rate of pethidine from plasma might therefore be due to slower biotransformation of pethidine to norpethidine and norpethidinic acid. The cumulative urinary excretion of norpethidine and norpethidinic acid during 24 h was significantly lower in old patients than in young: 2.7% versus 7.1% (p〈0.001), and 5.5% versus 10.5% (p〈0.001). The renal clearance of norpethidine was inversely correlated with age. Thus, the slower disappearance of norpethidine from plasma in old patients is due to slower renal excretion of this metabolite. The renal clearance of pethidine showed pH-dependence and was usually smaller than the creatinine clearance. In contrast, renal clearance of norpethidine was correlated with creatinine clearance and was of the same magnitude. The difference in renal handling may be explained by the more polar character of norpethidine compared to its parent compound. The present study shows that not only the excretion of unchanged drugs may decline with increasing age but also that of drug metabolites, which may therefore reach higher plasma levels in old patients. If they are pharmacologically active they will increase and prolong the response to medication and possibly increase the risk of side effects.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: hypertension ; verapamil ; norverapamil ; pharmacokinetics ; dosing frequency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Twelve hypertensive patients (WHO Stage I-II) were given oral verapamil (Isoptin) b.d. or t.d.s. as long-term treatment. The pharmacokinetics of verapamil and norverapamil were studied both after single and b.d. and t.d.s. doses of verapamil 240, 360 or 480 mg daily adjusted according to the blood pressure response. The apparent oral clearance of verapamil was decreased after both the twice and thrice daily dosage regimens (1.38 and 1.841/min, respectively) as compared to the single dose (4.39 l/min). The plasma half-life of verapamil was increased from 3.34 h (single dose) to 4.65 h (b.i.d.). Decreased elimination of norverapamil was also found after multiple doses of verapamil, as shown by an increase in the adjusted AUC of norverapamil (adjusted to a verapamil dose of 80 mg), namely from 574.9 h·ng·ml−1 (single dose) to 1172 h·ng·ml−1 (b.d.) and to 841 h·ng·ml−1 (t.d.s.). The plasma half-life of norverapamil increase from 5.68 h to 7.34 h during twice daily dosing. During thrice daily verapamil, no increase in plasma half-life was found either for verapamil or norverapamil, probably due to the relatively short sampling time (6 h). The plasma concentration of verapamil and the reduction in supine systolic and diastolic blood pressure were correlated. The mean decrease in supine systolic blood pressure was 5.8 mm Hg per 100 ng verapamil/ml plasma, and for diastolic pressure 2.9 mm Hg per 100 ng verapamil/ml plasma. The mean steadystate plasma concentrations of verapamil were similar after twice and thrice daily dosing regimens, which agrees with the clinical observation that blood pressure control in hypertensive patients is as good after verapamil b.d. and t.d.s.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: verapamil ; breast milk ; norverapamil ; breast feeding ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The concentrations of verapamil and norverapamil have been measured in milk and plasma samples from a 32year-old woman treated with verapamil 80 mg tds while breast-feeding her child. The average steady-state concentrations of verapamil and norverapamil in milk were, respectively, 60% and 16% of the concentrations in plasma. The breast-fed child received less than 0.01% of the dose of verapamil given to the mother. No verapamil or norverapamil (〈1 ng/ml) could be detected in the plasma from the child.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: codeine ; morphine ; pharmacokinetics ; steady-state ; oral administration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Plasma concentrations of codeine and its demethylated metabolite, morphine, were determined after single and repeated oral administration of codeine. Twelve healthy volunteers received two doses of codeine 60 mg, 2.8 h apart. In order to achieve steady-state conditions codeine 60 mg was then taken every 8 h for a further five doses. The plasma concentrations of codeine and morphine after the first, second and seventh doses were analyzed by GC-MS. The maximum plasma concentrations of codeine and morphine were reached about 1 h after administration and this time interval did not change on repeated administration. The peak plasma codeine was higher after the second dose of codeine than after the first and the concentration resembled that at steady-state. For morphine, the plasma concentration did not increase significantly after the second dose. Both after a single dose and during steady-state the plasma concentration of morphine was only 2–3% of that of codeine. It seems unlikely that morphine plays a significant role in the analgesic efficacy of single or repeated doses of codeine.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: clozapine ; schizophrenics ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The clinical pharmacokinetics of clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic, was evaluated in 10 chronic schizophrenic male patients after intravenous and oral administration. The mean equilibrium-state concentration ratio between blood and plasma was experimentally determined to be 0.87. The average values for blood clearance, hepatic extraction ratio and oral bioavailability were 250 ml/min, 0.2 and 0.27, respectively. Plasma concentration peaked on average at 3 h. The mean volume of distribution at steady-state and the terminal half-life was 1.6 l/kg and 10.3 h, respectively. A large fraction of the dose is most probably metabolized by some extrahepatic presystemic routes. The large inter-individual variability in the bioavailability and clearance is probably the main reason for large variation in the steady-state plasma level in patients receiving the same oral dosage regimen.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: pethidine ; analgesics ; epidural-/intrathecal injection ; pharmacokinetics ; drug metabolism ; norpethidine ; adverse effects ; CSF drug levels
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The disposition of pethidine and its main metabolite, norpethidine, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma was studied in 11 thoracic surgery patients after lumbar epidural (100 mg;n=6) or lumbar intrathecal (25 mg;n=5) administration of pethidine. Pethidine appeared more slowly in plasma after intrathecal than after epidural administration (tmax 2.3 h and 14 min, respectively), but systemic bioavailability was similar. The CSF concentrations of pethidine were higher than those in plasma after both routes of administration. The maximal CSF/plasma concentration ratio was 6000 to 45000 after intrathecal administration but was only 26 to 97 after the epidural route. Pethidine was rapidly distributed in CSF; nine to ten h after the intrathecal and epidural injections the CSF/plasma concentration ratios were 12 to 89 and 2 to 33, respectively. The calculated bioavailability in CSF of epidural pethidine was 10.3%. The terminal elimination half-life of pethidine was 6.0 h (CSF) and 5.4 h (plasma) after intrathecal administration and 8.6 h (CSF) and 8.8 h (plasma) after epidural injection. The volume of distribution of unchanged pethidine in the subarachnoid space was 13 ml·kg−1 and clearance from the CSF was 15 µl·kg−1·min−1. In all patients receiving intrathecal pethidine and in some patients after epidural pethidine, CSF norpethidine concentrations were higher than those in plasma; the maximum CSF norpethidine was 102 to 1211 ng·ml−1 and 14 to 210 ng·ml−1 and the maximum CSF/plasma norpethidine concentration ratios were 21 to 652 and 0.6 to 14 times after intrathecal and epidural administration, respectively. Norpethidine was rapidly distributed and its level in CSF was about the same or lower than in plasma during the terminal elimination phase. The maximum CSF norpethidine level was 1.2±1.0% of that of pethidine after intrathecal injection. Thus, epidural pethidine enters the CSF more rapidly and to a greater extent than has been previously shown for epidural morphine, but pethidine is more rapidly redistributed from CSF. The terminal elimination half-life of pethidine was found to be long in relation to the reported duration of analgesia after a single spinal dose of pethidine, which suggests a potential risk of accumulation within the CSF on multiple spinal injections of pethidine. Pethidine is partly metabolised within the subarachnoid space by N-dealkylating enzymes in the CNS. After intrathecal injection of more than 25 mg pethidine, the concentration of the principle metabolite, norpethidine, in CSF may be higher than that associated with CNS toxicity in man.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Haloperidol ; Pharmacokinetics ; Psychotic patients ; Serum levels ; High performance liquid chromatography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nine psychotic patients under continuous oral treatment with haloperidol were randomly given a test dose of 1.5–5 mg haloperidol orally and/or intravenously. Serum levels of haloperidol were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and serum concentration data obtained were submitted to pharmacokinetic analysis. The steady state concentration ratio between blood and plasma was determined and found to be 0.79±0.03. The blood clearance was then calculated to be 550±133 ml/min. The mean hepatic extraction ratio was intermediate (0.37). Consequently, for a drug mainly eliminated by hepatic metabolism like haloperidol, the total blood clearance and the extent of oral bioavailability can be affected by changes in hepatic blood flow, hepatic enzyme activities and drug binding. During continuous oral treatment with haloperidol, however, it can be shown that changes in the total metabolic capacity of the liver due to hepatic enzyme induction or inhibition should be important for the therapeutic effects of haloperidol. The volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) was large (7.9±2.5 l/kg). The terminal half-life was 18.8 h after intravenous and 18.1 h after oral administration. The oral bioavailability (0.60±0.18) were in accordance with previous results in healthy subjects. A mean lag time after oral dose was 1.3±1.1 h and a longer absorption half-life (1.9±1.4 h) was found in the patients compared with healthy volunteers.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Schizophrenia ; Clozapine ; Norclozapine ; Atmospheric pressure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract With the aim of exploring putative correlations between serum and CSF levels of clozapine and its demethyl metabolite, lumbar puncture was performed on four male and five female schizophrenic patients during long-term treatment with clozapine. Three consecutive 6-ml fractions were collected after at least 8 h of bedrest and fasting. On comparing serum and CSF levels, a correlation was found for norclozapine in the third (13–18 ml) CSF fraction. Norclozapine in the first (0–6 ml) CSF correlated significantly with height. The CSF/serum ratio of clozapine in the first fraction was correlated significantly with body weight. No correlations were found between serum levels of clozapine and norclozapine, or between the serum and CSF levels of clozapine. The study suffers from a small number of patients (for ethical reasons), but the present results might be explicable if the first (0–6 ml) CSF fraction represents a cul-du-sac of the CSF, mirroring the previous day's drug levels. The second fraction, then, will represent the CSF level in the steady state during the night.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Chromatography A 179 (1979), S. 207-212 
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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