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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Spleen – Tumor – CT – MRI
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. We report a case of littoral cell angioma (LCA) of the spleen, a recently described splenic pathology, which imaging characteristics and pathologic morphology have been discussed only by a few authors. The imaging findings in unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI and CT as well as histologic specimen are presented. Diagnosis was made after elective splenectomy. Differential diagnosis of splenic tumors as well as the imaging findings in this particular case are discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; Estrogen- and progesterone receptor ; Immunohistochemical double staining technique ; Computer-assisted image processing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A technique is described which allows precise assessment of the topographical relationship between the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the same histological section. It is based on the analysis of the results of immunohistochemical double staining by computer-assisted image processing. Five human ductal breast cancers were examined. The simultaneous demonstration of both receptors consists in the following principal steps: The primary antisera against the ER (monoclonal rat antibody) and the PR (monoclonal mouse antibody) are incubated simultaneously, but only the anti-ER antibody is demonstrated in the first staining step by using a goat anti-rat antibody as the linking antibody and the PAP complex from the rat, both antisera from the ER-ICA kit. The result is stored as a digitized grey image (“1. object image”). Then the colored end product and the residual peroxidase activity of the PAP complex are removed. In the second staining sequence the anti-PR-antibody is demonstrated by using a rabbit anti-mouse antibody as the linking antibody and the PAP complex from the mouse. The result is exactly positioned and also stored as a digitized grey image (“2. object image”). Though antibodies raised in different species were used, cross-reactivity could not be avoided. Grey values generated by cross-reactivity between the different anti-body systems are evaluated in negative controls and are eliminated in the object images. The remaining (specifically stained) structures of both object images are copied into a final image so that the topographical relationship of the ER and the PR becomes obvious. The results show that in the five carcinomas investigated three types of receptor-positive tumour cells can be distinguished: Cells which coexpress the ER and the PR (1), cells which express either the ER (2) or the PR (3). The number of tumour cells showing one of these expression patterns varies from tumour to tumour.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Prostate ; Hyperplasia ; Androgen receptor ; Basal cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The role of the basal cell layer in organogenesis, epithelial renewal and development of benign prostatic disorders is largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether or not basal cells express the nuclear androgen receptor (AR). Computer-assisted image analyses of immunohistochemical double stainings were performed to localize AR and basal-cell-specific cytokeratins in identical sections. The results showed that the basal cells express nuclear AR widely in normal and hyperplastic conditions. When compared with the staining intensities detected in secretory luminal cells, the receptor was most frequently expressed at lower levels in basal cells, which may exhibit strong AR immunoreactivity focally. Basal cells with increased AR expression were most frequently detected in hyperplastic lesions including post-atrophic and atypical hyperplasia. The presence of nuclear receptors for both androgens and oestrogens or progestins in basal cells may indicate that these cells are targets of the hormonal imbalance which has frequently been implicated in the aetiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 433 (1998), S. 195-202 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Morphogenesis ; Benign prostatic hyperplasia ; Prostate cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are multifactorial disease processes, involving a growing number of biochemical, genetic and epigenetic factors. Their pathogenesis, however, remains poorly understood. The present review examines current morphogenetic concepts of normal and abnormal growth in the human prostate. This includes the role of basal cells in organogenesis and cancerogenesis, the impact of cell–matrix interactions, and the importance of cellular heterogeneity in tumour progression and hormone-insensitive growth. Knowledge of morphogenesis and morphology is required in any scientific approach to BPH and prostate cancer.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Androgen receptor ; Chromogranin A ; Double label methods ; Prostate ; Prostate cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Neuroendocrine differentiation is a frequent occurrence in common prostatic adenocarcinomas and may have prognostic implications in prostatic malignancies. In the present study, we used immunohistochemical double label methods to evaluate the nuclear androgen receptor (AR) status in endocrine-paracrine (EP) cells of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic prostate including tumours that recurred after hormonal and radiation therapy. In normal and hyperplastic glands, EP cells characterized by the panendocrine marker chromogranin A (Chr A) did not reveal AR-positivity. This may indicate that prostatic EP cells represent an androgen-indepenent cell population whose regulatory functions are not influenced by circulating androgens. Unequivocal co-expression of Chr A and AR was very rarely detected in subsets of endocrine differentiated tumour cells in treated and untreated specimens. The widespread absence of nuclear AR in neuroendocrine tumour cells suggests that this phenotype belongs to those cell clones in prostate cancer which are initially androgen-independent and refractory to hormonal therapy.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Prostate ; Carcinoma ; Laminin ; Type IV collagen ; Heparan sulphate proteoglycan
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of the various basement membrane (BM) components (type IV collagen, laminin and heparan sulphate proteoglycan) was studied in fetal, adult normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic prostates in formalin- and ethanol-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. Stromal, epithelial and neoplastic BMs expressed differential susceptibility to pepsin treatment, suggesting conformational differences in the expression of epitopes on BM proteins in distinct anatomical structures and various lesions of the human prostate. In fetal prostate the acinar BM was regular and continuous in contrast to normal adult prostate and various hyperplastic conditions where the acinar BM was locally thickened or unreactive to the anti-BM antibodies. The localization pattern of BM components in grade I and grade II phases of prostatic cancer did not differ essentially from those found in various hyperplastic lesions. Regardless of the histopathological grade of malignancy, prostatic carcinoma cells were surrounded by distinct pericellular and periacinar membranes which were present even at points of contact with the stroma. This suggests that stroma invasion is invariably associated with neoplastic BM formations. Immunohistochemical evidence of the stromal or epithelial origin of neoplastic BMs could not be found. However, the consistent extracellular distribution of neoplastic BM components in contact with the stroma indicates that the elaboration of BM material requires a stromal influence.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Apoptosis ; Proliferation ; Phenotypic markers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  In situ DNA fragmentation assays have proved to be particularly useful in the detection of apoptosis in routinely processed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. In the present study, a triple-antigen labelling technique was performed to demonstrate DNA fragmentation (apoptosis), cell proliferation (MIB-1), and phenotypic markers in the same tissue section. The in situ apoptosis assay was conducted with the TUNEL method developed by a avidin-biotin alkaline phosphatase complex (ABcomplex/AP). The proliferation-associated MIB-1 antigen was demonstrated in the second staining sequence by the avidin-biotin peroxidase method (ABC). The phenotypic markers chromogranin A or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were visualized by the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase method (APAAP) in the third staining sequence. The feasibility of this triple-labelling technique was tested in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of prostatic adenocarcinomas from 8 patients with recurrent, hormone-refractory disease. Although these tumours revealed marked neuroendocrine differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected exclusively in non-endocrine (chromogranin A-negative) tumour cells that expressed PSA variably. The triple-labelling protocol described here allows the phenotypic characterization of proliferating and apoptotic cell populations in the same tissue section. It may be useful in studies of tissue kinetics in physiological and pathological processes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Transsphenoidal operation ; pituitary adenoma ; complication meningitis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Histopathology 17 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Eleven cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate have been divided into four groups according to their histological features and natural history: a pure squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate (one case); b common prostatic adenocarcinoma with malignant squamous component after oestrogen treatment (two); c urothelial carcinoma of the prostate with malignant squamous cell metaplasia (four); and d urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with squamous cell metaplasia growing into the prostate (four). The squamous portions may spread to invade the fibromuscular stroma and grow in prostatic ducts. Necrosis of comedo type and inflammatory infiltrates appeared in a number of cases. The survival times of nine patients ranged from 1 to 17 months. Squamous components were shown by immunohistochemistry to contain various keratin types, carcino-embryonic antigen and peanut agglutinin binding sites. Whenever a squamous cell carcinoma in the prostate is diagnosed histologically various possibilities as to its origin should be considered.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1963
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Benigne Prostataläsionen ; Diagnostische Kriterien ; Differentialdiagnose ; Key words Benign microacinar prostatic lesions ; Diagnostic criteria ; Differential diagnosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The scope of the present review is to define diagnostic criteria of benign prostatic lesions causing diagnostic difficulty in surgical pathology. The prostate harbors a variety of small acinar lesions that may mimic prostate cancer in biopsy specimens. Generally, the most important diagnostic clues are obtained on low-power magnification by assessing architectural features. Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) is a small acinar proliferation closely related to hyperplastic glands. Diagnostic features of postatrophic hyperplasia include a lobular small acinar proliferation associated with atrophic and dilated acini. Basal cell hyperplasia and scleros-ing adenosis show characteristic stromal changes that are uncommon in prostate cancer. Additional cytological features and intraluminal secretions are also important in the diagnostic evaluation of small acinar lesions in biopsy specimens. Negative immunohistochemical results obtained with basal-cell-specific cytokeratins should be evaluated in context with other diagnostic criteria. The unequivocal demonstration of basal cells in small acinar lesions excludes invasive cancer. Other rare small acinar lesions must be recognized when assessing biopsy specimens, including verumontanum-mucosa hyperplasia, Cowper’s glands and mesonephroid hyperplasia. The various small acinar lesions discussed in the present review have no clinical significance, except atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), which may be a precursor of small acinar cancer of the transition zone. The biological and clinical significance of AAH, however, remains to be established.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung In der vorliegenden Übersicht werden diagnostische Kriterien benigner, mikroglandulärer Prostataläsionen zusammengetragen, die man in Stanzbiopsien und trans-urethralen Resektionen leicht mit einem Prostatakarzinom verwechseln kann. Die wichtigsten diagnostischen Merkmale benigner, mikroglandulärer Proliferationen ergeben sich aus dem Aspekt der Läsion in der Übersicht. Die atypische adenomatöse Hyperplasie (AAH) ist eine mikroglanduläre Proliferation, die in direkter Kontinuität mit benignen, hyperplastischen Drüsen entsteht. Die postatrophe Hyperplasie zeigt einen typischen lobulären Aufbau und ist mit atrophischen Drüsen assoziiert. Die Basalzellhyperplasie und die sklerosierende Adenose erkennt man bereits in der Übersicht an charakteristischen Stromaveränderungen. Zusätzliche zytologische Kriterien und pathologische luminale Sekretionen müssen für die Abgrenzung gegenüber dem Prostatakarzinom evaluiert werden. Der immunhistochemische Befund (basalzellspezifische Zytokeratine) muß kritisch beurteilt werden, weil benignen, mikroglandulären Läsionen z.T. eine Basalzellschicht fehlt. Der Nachweis einer Basalzelldifferenzierung schließt in jedem Fall ein invasives Prostatakarzinom aus. Seltene Differentialdiagnosen des mikroazinären Prostatakarzinoms sind die Verumontanum-Mukosa-Hyperplasie, Cowper’sche Drüsen und die mesonephroide Hyperplasie. Die benignen, mikroglandulären Prostataläsionen haben v.a. eine differentialdiagnostische Bedeutung. Lediglich die AAH wird als ein potentieller Vorläufer der mikroazinären Prostatakarzinome der Transitionalzone angesehen, obwohl die klinische und prognostische Bedeutung dieser Läsion bis heute nicht geklärt ist.
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