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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Type IV collagen ; Drosophila ; Germ band retraction ; Dorsal closure ; Nerve cord condensation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A collagen gene (Dcg1) was characterized in Drosophila melanogaster and shown to encode a peptide related to vertebrate basement membrane type IV collagen chains. To study the function of type IV collagen during Drosophila development, we transformed flies with a partially truncated Dcg1 gene under the control of a heat-shock promotor. This construct induced synthesis of shortened pro-α chains which associated with normal ones and thereby caused degradation of the shortened and normal pro-α chains through a process called “pro-collagen suicide”. A large proportion of embryos expressing the transgene developed a phenotype exhibiting absence or partial retraction of the germ band with defects in nerve cord condensation and dorsal closure. Together these results indicated that, during embryogenesis, type IV collagen was an essential guiding factor for cell-matrix interactions in morphogenetic events.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: phylogeny ; evolution ; allozymes ; rDNA ; DNA sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The first application of molecular systematics to sponges was in the 1980s, using allozyme divergence to dis-criminate between conspecific and congeneric sponge populations. Since this time, a fairly large database has been accumulated and, although the first findings seemed to indicate that sponge species were genetically more divergent than those of other marine invertebrates, a recent review of the available dataset indicates that levels of interspecific gene identities in most sponges fall within the normal range found between species of other invertebrates. Nevertheless, some sponge genera have species that are extremely divergent from each other, suggesting a possible polyphyly of these genera. In the 1990s, molecular studies comparing sequences of ribosomal RNA have been used to reappraise the phylogenetic relationships among sponge genera, families, orders and classes. Both the 18S small subunit and the 28S large subunit rRNA genes have been sequenced (41 complete or partial and 75 partial sequences, respectively). Sequences of 18S rRNA show good support for Porifera being true Metazoa, but they are not informative for resolving relationships among genera, families or orders. 28S rRNA domains D1 and D2 appear to be more informative for the terminal nodes and provide resolution for internal topologies in sufficiently closely related species, but the deep nodes between orders or classes cannot be resolved using this molecule. Recently, a more conserved gene, Hsp70, has been used to try to resolve the relationships in the deep nodes. Metazoan monophyly is very well supported. Nevertheless, the divergence between the three classes of Porifera, as well as the divergence between Porifera, Cnidaria and Ctenophora, is not resolved. Research is in progress using other genes such as those of the homeodomain, the tyrosine kinase domain, and those coding for the aggregation factor. For the moment the dataset for these genes is too restricted to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of these phyla. However, whichever the genes, the phylogenies obtained suggest that Porifera could be paraphyletic and that the phylogenetic relationships of most of the families and orders of the Demospongiae have to be reassessed. The Calcarea and Hexactinellida are still to be studied at the molecular level.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: gingiva ; collagen ; polysaccharides ; heparin ; dextran ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Gingival fibroblasts are particularly involved in the physiologic maintenance and repair of periodontium. During these processes, cell proliferation and synthesis of a collagen-rich gingival matrix should be controlled. A dextran derivative, namely, carboxy methyl dextran benzylamide sulfonate (CMDBS), considered to be a functional analog of heparin, was previously described to regulate proliferation of different types of cells and independently to modulate the expression of collagen biosynthesis. In this report, we demonstrate that CMDBS and heparin inhibited gingival fibroblast proliferation. We then analyzed collagen biosynthesis by measuring the incorporation of the radiolabeled [3H]proline precursor into collagen by postconfluent gingival fibroblasts. Our results showed CMDBS did not alter total collagen synthesis; it induced the preferential accumulation of newly synthesized collagen into the pericellular matrix; and it decreased the expression of type III collagen, particularly in the cell layer. Taken together, our results suggest that by inhibiting cell proliferation, CMDBS could induce the synthesis of an extracellular collagenous matrix which forms a network between gingival fibroblasts. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 40, 164-169, 1998.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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