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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In schistosomiasis a systemic hyperplasia of the monomacrophagic cell lineage is associated with its mild modifications in myelograms and hemograms. We monitored the in vitro proliferation of myeloid precursors obtained from bone marrow, blood, spleen, and liver. The macrophage colony-forming unit (M-CFU) numbers were stable in bone marrow but increased progressively in spleen and in liver, reaching in each organ the values equivalent to one femur. The bone marrow had an increased production and enhanced capacity to release M-CFU. Their quantitative increase in blood and in peripheral tissues of schistosome-infected mice was associated with their qualitative modifications: augmented proliferative capacity, enhanced adhesion, and accelerated differentiation. The accelerated release of monomacrophage progenitors and their enhanced proliferation in peripheral tissues potentially account for the relatively low involvement of the bone marrow and for an efficient in situ production of phagocytes, which participate in host reactions to parasites.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Most multicellular organisms, prokaryotes as well as animals, plants, and algae have a unicellular stage in their life cycle. Here, we describe an uncultured prokaryotic magnetotactic multicellular organism that reproduces by binary fission. It is multicellular in all the stages of its life cycle, and during most of the life cycle the cells organize into a hollow sphere formed by a functionally coordinated and polarized single-cell layer that grows by increasing the cell size. Subsequently, all the cells divide synchronously; the organism becomes elliptical, and separates into two equal spheres with a torsional movement in the equatorial plane. Unicellular bacteria similar to the cells that compose these organisms have not been found. Molecular biology analysis showed that all the organisms studied belong to a single genetic population phylogenetically related to many-celled magnetotactic prokaryotes in the delta sub-group of the proteobacteria. This appears to be the first report of a multicellular prokaryotic organism that proliferates by dividing into two equal multicellular organisms each similar to the parent one.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Cell–titanium interactions are crucial to the clinical success of bone and dental implants. The physico-chemical characteristics of the substrates surface influence osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and activity as well. The osteoblast behavior was analyzed on three different titanium surfaces: ground with an abrasive 600 grit SiC paper, blasted with alumina particles (65 μm diameter) and alumina blasted followed by a double chemical etch (4% HF+4% HF/8% H2O2). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry showed distinct microtopographies. Ground samples showed parallel-groove orientation. The Al2O3-blasted surface presented the roughest microtopography with aluminum-rich particles incrusted in the titanium surface. Osteoblasts cells from femora of Balb/c mice were seeded onto the substrates tested. Cell morphology and initial attachment were evaluated by SEM. Osteoblasts adhered to and spread on all samples tested. However, on rough surfaces, osteoblasts did not spread completely and acquired a polygonal morphology. Besides, the cell proliferation rate was diminished at the beginning of incubation on rough surfaces. Our results suggest a delay, rather than an impairment, in osteoblast viability and alkaline phosphatase activity when cells are cultured on rough surfaces, inducing a distinct osteoblast phenotype, rather than blocking its activity. At least in the culture conditions used in this work, alumina particles did not affect osteoblast behavior.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: . Developmental processes in multicellular organisms require structural elements, such as adhesion molecules, to stabilize cells at functional positions. In vertebrates, a series of extracellular matrix proteins, e.g. fibronectin and laminin are involved in cell adhesion. These proteins contain Arg-Gly-Asp [RGD] at their binding sites. Here we show that at concentrations above 2 mM the peptide GRGDSPK, comprising the tripeptide RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp), prevents the adhesiveness of cells of the marine amoeba Neopar-amoeba aestuarina. In addition, elevated levels of GRGDSPK cause cells to alter their shapes from those with digitiform subpseudopodia to rounded cells with small lobed pseudopodia. These cells detach from the substratum. These results are specific for the RGD sequence, because incubation in GRGESPK solution at the same concentrations had no effect on cell attachment or structure. From these data we suggest that the structural adhesion molecules identified in vertebrates shows amino acid homologies with those found in unicellular protozoa.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: lipoprotein lipase ; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ; hepatic stellate cells ; retinol ; indomethacin ; lipid metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Molecular mechanisms of lipid synthesis and their controls in hepatic stellate cells are not known. We have previously proposed that, in contrast to other fat storing cells, hepatic stellate cells are not involved in energy storage, but they represent a particular cell population specialized in storage of lipid-soluble substances, the major one being probably retinol. In agreement with this hypothesis, induction of the lipocyte phenotype in stellate cells is not under the control of insulin, but responds to retinoids and other molecules that modify the gene expression program in these cells. In the present study we have monitored the activity of the two major enzymes involved in lipid synthesis during the induction of the lipocyte phenotype in hepatic stellate cells: glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) that mediates the de novo lipid synthesis, and lipoprotein lipase that mediates incorporation of plasma lipids. In early stages of lipocyte induction, both pathways of lipid synthesis are activated. When lipocytes have already constituted the lipid droplets, lipoprotein lipase pathway is downregulated, while GPDH activity remains high. Adult liver has been reported to lack lipoprotein lipase, but under stress, lipase activity was detected around and at the surface of the intrahepatic vasculature. We have now shown that the lipase activity can be induced in the hepatic stellate cells, located in the Disse's space. The high lipoprotein lipase activity under acute induction of lipocyte phenotype, followed by the low activity under conditions of metabolic equilibrium, are in compass with the increased activity of this enzyme under stress, and its low activity in adult liver parenchyma under normal conditions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: vitamin-A ; cellular retinol-binding protein ; liver ; hepatic stellate cells ; lipocytes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Liver is a major site of retinoid metabolism and storage, and more than 80% of the liver retinoids are stored in hepatic stellate cells. These cells represent less than 1% of the total liver protein, reaching a very high relative intracellular retinoid concentration. The plasma level of retinol is maintained close to 2 μM, and hepatic stellate cells have to be able both to uptake or to release retinol depending upon the extracellular retinol status. In view of their paucity in the liver tissue, stellate cells have been studied in primary cultures, in which they loose rapidly the stored lipids and retinol, and convert spontaneously into the activated myofibroblast phenotype, turning a long-term study of their retinol metabolism impossible. We have analyzed the retinol metabolism in the established GRX cell line, representative of stellate cells. We showed that this cell line behaves very similarly, with respect the retinol uptake and release, to primary cultures of hepatic stellate cells. Moreover, we showed that the cellular retinol binding protein (CRBP-I) expression in these cells, relevant for both uptake and esterification of retinol, responds to the extracellular retinol status, and is correlated to the retinol binding capacity of the cytosol. Its expression is not associated with the overall induction of the lipocyte phenotype by other agents. We conclude that the GRX cell line represents an in vitro model of hepatic stellate cells, and responds very efficiently to wide variations of the extracellular retinol status by autonomous controls of its uptake, storage or release.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Résumé Les auteurs distinguent 8 types cellulaires dans l'EpongeOphlitaspongia seriata (Grant) en réorganisation après dissociation. Ils décrivent leur comportement au cours de la réorganisation, leur ultrastructure et leurs capacités de différenciation. Les cellules globifères sont particulièrement remarquables par leurs nombreuses inclusions cytoplasmiques tubulaires de 70 mμ.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Des larves de l'éponge Mycale contarenii (Martens) ont été dissociées par 1'E.D.T.A. Les agrégats cellulaires se réorganisent en éponge fonctionnelle, après phagocytose de nombreuses cellules ciliées. Les cellules ciliées non phagocytées forment les choanocytes. Le rôle des principaux types cellulaires de la larve dans la morphogénèse de l'éponge sont discutés.
    Notes: Summary The larvae of the sponge Mycale contarenii (Martens) have been dissociated with a solution of E.D.T.A. The cell aggregates form a small functional sponge after the phagocytosis of a large number of the ciliated cells. The ciliated cells which have not been phagocyted differenciate in choanocytes. The role of the three major cell types of the larva during the morphogenesis of the young sponge are discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1438-3888
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé 1. Les travaux deSarà (1953) et deBurton (1963) ont remis en question la valeur systématique des caractères morphologiques dans la classification des Eponges Calcaires, et ont proposé de considérer de nombreuses formes connues comme des variétés individuelles et régionales d'espèces très plastiques et variables. Nous avons essayé de préciser, par l'observation directe en plongée libre, la distribution et les préférences écologiques des Calcaires, de définir ainsi les limites naturelles de leurs populations, et d'étudier ensuite la variabilité des caractères morphologiques à l'intérieur de ces populations. 2. Nous exposons ici l'exemple des espèces des genresClathrina etAscandra, étudiées en Adriatique, dans les régions de Marseille et de Roscoff. Leur distribution est en rapport direct et très précis avec l'exposition aux vagues et à la lumière, à tel point que sur une surface réduite plusieurs espèces se succèdent et se remplacent en fonction de l'exposition de l'endroit. Dans la règion de Roscoff cette distribution est plus large ce qui est dû aux effets des marées, mais les zones écologique préférentielles pour les espèces deClathrina ont pu être établies en fonction de l'importance de l'apport des sédiments par les eaux côtières. 3. La possibilité de définir des populations dont la distribution est très précisemment délimitée malgré une coexistence dans un espace réduit, et qui ne sont pas réliées par les formes transitoires, permet d'éliminer l'hypothèse de la cospécificité de ces populations. Elle permet également d'établir les variations morphologiques possibles au sein d'une espèce, de retenir les caractères significatifs pour la classification, et finalement de distinguer les espèces qui se ressemblent morphologiquement. Dans le cas d'animaux qui, commeClathrina, possèdent très peu de caractères utilisables en systématique, c'est la seule façon de résoudre les problèmes de leur taxonomie.
    Notes: Abstract The particular difficulties of the taxonomy of calcareous sponges are due to their great plasticity and their capacity for adaptation which obscure the natural limits of species. An attempt was made to define the natural populations of the Mediterranean species of the generaClathrina andAscandra through a study of their ecological distributions. The populations not connected by the transitory forms were defined by their ecological preferences, and, as they are found in a close cohabitation, were treated as having the specific values. The variability of different morphological features is discussed, the features significant for taxonomy are pointed out and the morphologically close species are defined.
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