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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The adsorption of vapours of different volatility and polarity on three materials widely used indoors (carpet, gypsum board, wall coating) has been investigated in small test chambers, in order to study methodological aspects and to estimate the importance of the phenomenon for human exposure assessments. The output of the models used, with rate constants describing two different sinks, is discussed. The experiments show that: a) adsorption seems to occur to at least two different sinks with different rate constants in the same material; b) generally adsorption increases with the boiling point of the compounds, but it depends also on other physicochemical properties, such as the chemical functionality, as well as on the sorbent material: e.g. the two alkanes n-decane and n-dodecane show a higher k3/k4 ratio on carpet than on gypsum board, whereas the opposite is observed for the two alcohols 2-butoxyethanol and 2-ethylhexanol
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 2 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Two models, one physical and the other empirical, have been applied to the characterization of emission data of thin film products tested in small environmental chambers and have been compared in temts of emission results and m e of use. The physical model, being based on equations with coefficients bearing a physical meaning, is, in principle, more informative than the empirical one. However, it is uncertain whether it always gives accurate and unambiguous results. Moreover, in orakr to be exploited in a reasonable amount of time, it requires the use of non-linear regression routines, e.g. those fom SAS Institute Inc., implemented on mainframes and, even then, it is often quite diffiult to handle. The empirical model does not rely explicitly on physical effects. Although by definition it can only describe but not interpret the experimental data, it does estimate parameters describing the emission with an accuracy comparable to that of the physical model. It is easier to handle than the latter as it can employ non-linear regression routines such as those used on personal computers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 39 (1967), S. 375-377 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 2 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The most important features of Tenax and Carbotrap, solid sorbents used widely for sampling organic pollutants in air, have been tested under the conditions requested for surveys in indoor spaces and for determinations of VOC emitted from indoor sources by chamber experiments. The performances of samplers, tested with 10 nonpolar and polar (mostly lipophilic) hydrocarbons, present as vapours in 0.5 to 2.0 litre air samples, include: (a) accuracy and reproducibility of the measured concentration, (b) background or “blank” of samplers, (c) stability upon storage (at ambient and below ambient temperatures) of clean samplers and of samplers loaded with VOC, and (d) performance stability after several sampling desorption cycles. The results fulfil the requirements for both adsorbents, though each presents some different drawbacks. In particular (a) Tenax samplers show a “blank” (90 percentile) of 16 ng of benzene and 5 ng of toluene, Carbotrap samplers roughly twice as much; (b) the samplers may be stored for one month either before or after use and (c) they may withstand many cycles without discernible deterioration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A chamber method for the characterization of the complex composition and time dependence of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from household products is described and the results obtained for five household products (two liquid floor detergents, one wax, a spray detergent for carpets, and a spray polish for furniture) are reported and compared to headspace measurements.An empirical mathematical model has been used to describe the time dependence of VOC concentrations in the chamber. The model allows characterization of complex emissions and their time dependence with relatively few parameters.Significant differences in the composition of emissions determined in the chamber and in headspace air have been observed and are discussed in terms of polarity and water solubility of the emitted compounds.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Eighteen laboratories from 10 European countries participated in a comparison organized as part of the VOCEM project, a 2.5-year research collaboration among 4 research institutes and 4 industrial companies. The scope of the project was to improve the procedure used to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from building materials and products in small test chambers. The interlaboratory comparison included the GC-MS determination of 5 target compounds from carpet, 8 from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cushion vinyl and 2 from paint; for the first time, chamber recovery (sinks), homogeneity of solid materials and possible contamination during transport were tested. The results show that the intralaboratory variance (random errors) is much smaller than the interlaboratory variance (systematic errors). Causes of the largest interlaboratory discrepancies were: (i) analytical errors; (ii) losses of the heaviest compounds due to sorption on the chamber walls; and (iii) non homogeneity of the materials. The output of this work concerns both the objective of labelling materials with regard to their VOC emissions and the pre-standard drafted by the European Commitee for Standardization (CEN) for this type of determination.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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