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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; epidermal growth factor receptor ; ErbB-2 receptor ; mitogen-activated protein kinase ; ras
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Genetic ras mutations are infrequent in breast cancer but Ras may be pathologically activated in breast cancer by overexpression of growth factor receptors which signal through Ras. Using a highly sensitive, coupled enzymatic assay, we measured Ras activation in 20 breast cancers, two fibroadenomas, and seven normal breast samples. Ras was highly activated compared to benign tissue in 11 of the 20 cancer; 7 of these 11 cancers expressed both the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and ErbB-2/neu/HER-2 receptors with the remaining four cancers with high Ras activation expressing one of these two receptors. In the other nine cancers, Ras activation was similar to that observed in benign breast tissue with none of these cancers expressing the EGF receptor while one expressed the ErbB-2 receptor. None of the cancers tested had an activating K-ras mutation nor did any of the cancers express a truncated EGF receptor or the c-FMS receptor. The activity of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase was high in the cancers, and reflected the degree of Ras activation. In cultured mammary tumor cell lines, we showed that Ras activation was ligand dependent in cells overexpressing the ErbB-2 receptor. Thus, Ras was abnormally activated in breast cancers overexpressing the EGF and/or ErbB-2 receptors indicating there are sufficient ligands in vivo to activate these receptors, and this work provides a basis for new target-based treatments of this disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: HL-60 cells ; differentiation ; cGMP-dependent protein kinase ; nitric oxide ; cGMP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We previously described the isolation of a variant subline of HL-60 cells that does not differentiate in response to nitric oxide (NO)-generating agents or to cGMP analogs [7]. The variant cells have normal guanylate cyclase activity and normal NO-induced increases in the intracellular cGMP concentration. We now show that the variant cells have normal cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase) activity, both by an in vitro and in vivo assay, and using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis we have identified six G-kinase substrates in the parental cells. Of these six proteins, we found considerably less phosphorylation of one of the proteins in the variant cells than in parental cells, both in vitro and in intact cells, and by 35S-methionine/35S-cysteine incorporation we found much less of this protein in the variant cells than in parental cells. The protein is a shared substrate of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase); since cAMP analogs still induce differentiation of the variant cells, it appears that the NO/cGMP/G-kinase and cAMP/A-kinase signal transduction pathways share some but not all of the same target proteins in inducing differentiation of HL-60 cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: cAMP-dependent protein kinase ; protein kinase C ; phospholipid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have purified from human placenta a low molecular mass substance that inhibits cAMP-dependent protein kinase and activates protein kinase C. This protein kinase regulator was purified in three steps: (1) homogenizing placentas in chloroform/methanol and extracting the regulator into water; (2) eluting a strong anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column with a quaternary gradient; and (3) eluting a reversed-phase HPLC column with a binary gradient. The regulator was found to be highly purified by HPLC, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry with a molecular mass of 703 Daltons by the latter procedure. The physical and biochemical properties of this protein kinase regulator suggest that it is a phospholipid but it did not co-elute by HPLC or by TLC with any of the known phospholipid activators of protein kinase C.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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