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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  82. Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie; 20110601-20110605; Freiburg i. Br.; DOC11hnod280 /20110419/
    Publication Date: 2011-04-19
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Keywords: brain ; EXPRESSION ; CLINICAL-TRIAL ; PROTEIN ; IMMUNE-RESPONSES ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; EFFICACY ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN ; GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN ; SODIUM-IODIDE SYMPORTER ; GROWTH-FACTOR-RECEPTOR ; ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN EXPRESSION ; RHESUS-MONKEYS
    Abstract: Oncolytic measles viruses (MV) derived from the live attenuated vaccine strain have been engineered for increased tumor-cell specificity, and are currently under investigation in clinical trials including a phase I study for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Recent preclinical studies have shown that the cellular tropism of several viruses can be controlled by inserting microRNA-target sequences into their genomes, thereby inhibiting spread in tissues expressing cognate microRNAs. Since neuron-specific microRNA-7 is downregulated in gliomas but highly expressed in normal brain tissue, we engineered a microRNA-sensitive virus containing target sites for microRNA-7 in the 3'-untranslated region of the viral fusion gene. In presence of microRNA-7 this modification inhibits translation of envelope proteins, restricts viral spread, and progeny production. Even though highly attenuated in presence of microRNA-7, this virus retained full efficacy against glioblastoma xenografts. Furthermore, microRNA-mediated inhibition protected genetically modified mice susceptible to MV infection from a potentially lethal intracerebral challenge. Importantly, endogenous microRNA-7 expression in primary human brain resections tightly restricted replication and spread of microRNA-sensitive virus. This is proof-of-concept that tropism restriction by tissue-specific microRNAs can be adapted to oncolytic MV to regulate viral replication and gene expression to maximize tumor specificity without compromising oncolytic efficacy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21468006
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; GENE-THERAPY ; pancreatic cancer ; SERIAL ANALYSIS ; oncolysis ; STEM-CELL ANTIGEN ; SINGLE-CHAIN ANTIBODY ; ONCOLYTIC VIRUSES ; DEOXYNUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS ; FLUDARABINE PHOSPHATE ; measles virus ; prodrug-converting enzyme ; PURINE NUCLEOSIDE PHOSPHORYLASE
    Abstract: No curative therapy is currently available for locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches must be considered. Measles virus (MV) vaccine strains have shown promising oncolytic activity against a variety of tumor entities. For specific therapy of pancreatic cancer, we generated a fully retargeted MV that enters cells exclusively through the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA). Besides a high-membrane frequency on prostate cancer cells, this antigen is expressed on pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but not on non-neoplastic tissue. PSCA expression levels differ within heterogeneous tumor bulks and between human pancreatic cell lines, and we could show specific infection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines with both high-and low-level PSCA expression. Furthermore, we generated a fully retargeted and armed MV-PNP-anti-PSCA to express the prodrug convertase purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). PNP, which activates the prodrug fludarabine effectively, enhanced the oncolytic efficacy of the virus on infected and bystander cells. Beneficial therapeutic effects were shown in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model. Moreover, in the treatment of gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells, no cross-resistance to both MV oncolysis and activated prodrug was detected.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21701532
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; p53 ; CARCINOMA-CELLS ; CANCER-THERAPY ; PROGRAM ; HETEROCHROMATIN ; CELLULAR SENESCENCE ; HALLMARKS ; VIRAL THERAPY
    Abstract: Therapy-induced senescence (TIS) as a permanent growth arrest can be induced by various stimuli, including anticancer compounds. TIS emerged as a promising strategy to overcome resistance phenomena. However, senescent cancer cells might regain proliferation activity in vivo or even secrete tumor-promoting cytokines. Therefore, successful exploitation of TIS in cancer treatment simultaneously requires the development of effective strategies to eliminate senescent cancer cells. Virotherapy aims to selectively hit tumor cells, thus a combination with senescence-inducing drugs was explored. As a model, we chose measles vaccine virus (MeV), which does not interfere with cellular senescence by itself. In different tumor cell types, such as hepatoma, pancreatic and mammary gland carcinoma, we demonstrate efficient viral replication and lysis after TIS by gemcitabine, doxorubicin or taxol. Applying real time imaging, we even found an accelerated lysis of senescent cancer cells, supporting an enhanced viral replication with an increase in cell-associated and released infectious MeV particles. In summary, we show as a proof-of-concept that senescent tumor cells can be efficiently exploited as virus host cells by oncolytic MeV. These observations open up a new field for preclinical and clinical research to further investigate TIS and oncolytic viruses as an attractive combinatorial future treatment approach.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23797800
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  • 5
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; COMBINATION ; antibody ; MELANOMA ; SAFETY ; CANCER-IMMUNOTHERAPY ; RESCUE ; IPILIMUMAB ; CHEMOVIROTHERAPY
    Abstract: We hypothesized that the combination of oncolytic virotherapy with immune checkpoint modulators would reduce tumor burden by direct cell lysis and stimulate antitumor immunity. In this study, we have generated attenuated Measles virus (MV) vectors encoding antibodies against CTLA-4 and PD-L1 (MV-aCTLA-4 and MV-aPD-L1). We characterized the vectors in terms of growth kinetics, antibody expression, and cytotoxicity in vitro. Immunotherapeutic effects were assessed in a newly established, fully immunocompetent murine model of malignant melanoma, B16-CD20. Analyses of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and restimulation experiments indicated a favorable immune profile after MV-mediated checkpoint modulation. Therapeutic benefits in terms of delayed tumor progression and prolonged median overall survival were observed for animals treated with vectors encoding anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-L1, respectively. Combining systemic administration of antibodies with MV treatment also improved therapeutic outcome. In vivo oncolytic efficacy against human tumors was studied in melanoma xenografts. MV-aCTLA-4 and MV-aPD-L1 were equally efficient as parental MV in this model, with high rates of complete tumor remission (〉 80%). Furthermore, we could demonstrate lysis of tumor cells and transgene expression in primary tissue from melanoma patients. The current results suggest rapid translation of combining immune checkpoint modulation with oncolytic viruses into clinical application.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.160.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25156126
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  • 6
    Keywords: tumor ; PHASE-I ; ANTIGEN ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; FUSION ; GENE-THERAPY ; ADENOVIRUS ; COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR ; CYTOSINE DEAMINASE ; SODIUM-IODIDE SYMPORTER ; CELL CARCINOMA ; HNSCC ; EGFR ; VIROTHERAPY ; cetuximab ; oncolytic measles virus ; prodrug converting enzyme
    Abstract: First-line treatment of recurrent and/or refractory head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is based on platinum, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and the monoclonal anti EGFR antibody cetuximab. However, in most cases this chemoimmunotherapy does not cure the disease, and more than 50% of HNSCC patients are dying because of local recurrence of the tumors. In the majority of cases, HNSCC overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and its presence is associated with a poor outcome. In this study, we engineered an EGFR-targeted oncolytic measles virus (MV), armed with the bifunctional enzyme cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CD/UPRT). CD/UPRT converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the chemotherapeutic 5-FU, a mainstay of HNSCC chemotherapy. This virus efficiently replicates in and lyses primary HNSCC cells in vitro. Arming with CD/UPRT mediates efficient prodrug activation with high bystander killing of non-infected tumor cells. In mice bearing primary HNSCC xenografts, intratumoral administration of MV-antiEGFR resulted in statistically significant tumor growth delay and prolongation of survival. Importantly, combination with 5-FC is superior to virus-only treatment leading to significant tumor growth inhibition. Thus, chemovirotherapy with EGFR-targeted and CD/UPRT-armed MV is highly efficacious in preclinical settings with direct translational implications for a planned Phase I clinical trial of MV for locoregional treatment of HNSCC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22076043
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  • 7
    Keywords: tumor ; COMBINATION ; QUANTIFICATION ; GENE ; CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY ; GM-CSF ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; IMMUNOCOMPETENT MURINE MODEL
    Abstract: Abstract Oncolytic measles viruses (MV) derived from the live attenuated vaccine strain have been engineered for increased antitumor activity, and are currently under investigation in clinical phase 1 trials. Approaches with other viral vectors have shown that insertion of immunomodulatory transgenes enhances the therapeutic potency. In this study, we engineered MV for expression of the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). For the first time, therapeutic efficacy and adaptive immune response in the context of MV oncolysis could be evaluated in the previously established immunocompetent murine colon adenocarcinoma model MC38cea. MC38cea cells express the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), allowing for infection with retargeted MV. Intratumoral application of MV-GMCSF significantly delayed tumor progression and prolonged median overall survival compared with control virus-treated mice. Importantly, more than one-third of mice treated with MV-GMCSF showed complete tumor remission and rejected successive tumor reengraftment, demonstrating robust long-term protection. An enhanced cell-mediated tumor-specific immune response could be detected by lactate dehydrogenase assay and interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Furthermore, MV-GMCSF treatment correlated with increased abundance of tumor-infiltrating CD3(+) lymphocytes analyzed by quantitative microscopy of tumor sections. These findings underline the potential of oncolytic, GM-CSF-expressing MV as an effective therapeutic cancer vaccine actively recruiting adaptive immune responses for enhanced therapeutic impact and tumor elimination. Thus, the treatment benefit of this combined immunovirotherapy approach has direct implications for future clinical trials.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23642239
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  • 8
    Keywords: IN-VIVO ; INHIBITION ; THERAPY ; transcription ; ATTENUATION ; ADENOVIRUS ; INTERFERENCE ; MEASLES-VIRUS ; REGULATORY SYSTEMS ; RIBOZYMES
    Abstract: Aptazymes are small, ligand-dependent self-cleaving ribozymes that function independently of transcription factors and can be customized for induction by various small molecules. Here, we introduce these artificial riboswitches for regulation of DNA and RNA viruses. We hypothesize that they represent universally applicable tools for studying viral gene functions and for applications as a safety switch for oncolytic and live vaccine viruses. Our study shows that the insertion of artificial aptazymes into the adenoviral immediate early gene E1A enables small-molecule-triggered, dose-dependent inhibition of gene expression. Aptazyme-mediated shutdown of E1A expression translates into inhibition of adenoviral genome replication, infectious particle production, and cytotoxicity/oncolysis. These results provide proof of concept for the aptazyme approach for effective control of biological outcomes in eukaryotic systems, specifically in virus infections. Importantly, we also demonstrate aptazyme-dependent regulation of measles virus fusion protein expression, translating into potent reduction of progeny infectivity and virus spread. This not only establishes functionality of aptazymes in fully cytoplasmic genetic systems, but also implicates general feasibility of this strategy for application in viruses with either DNA or RNA genomes. Our study implies that gene regulation by artificial riboswitches may be an appealing alternative to Tet- and other protein-dependent gene regulation systems, based on their small size, RNA-intrinsic mode of action, and flexibility of the inducing molecule. Future applications range from gene analysis in basic research to medicine, for example as a safety switch for new generations of efficiency-enhanced oncolytic viruses.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24449891
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; liver ; MESSENGER-RNA ; ENTRY ; adenocarcinoma ; REPLICATION ; GLYCOPROTEINS ; VIROTHERAPY ; CHEMOVIROTHERAPY
    Abstract: Precise oncotropism is required for successful systemic administration of next-generation oncolytic measles viruses (MVs). We have previously established a system for efficient post-entry targeting by insertion of synthetic microRNA target sites (miRTS) into the MV genome, thereby repressing replication in the presence of cognate microRNAs. Thus, differential expression of microRNAs, as frequently observed in normal compared with malignant tissues, can be exploited to increase vector specificity and safety. Here we report the combination of miRTS for different microRNAs in a single vector to detarget pivotal organs at risk during systemic administration (liver, brain, gastrointestinal tract). Accordingly, miRTS for miR-122, miR-7 and miR-148a that are enriched in these tissues were inserted to create multi-tissue-detargeted MV (MV-EGFP(mtd)). Replication of MV-EGFP(mtd) is repressed in cell lines as well as in non-transformed primary human hepatocytes and liver slices expressing cognate microRNAs. Oncolytic potency of MV-EGFP(mtd) is retained in a model of pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo. This work is a proof-of-concept that favorable expression profiles of multiple microRNAs can be exploited concomitantly to reshape the tropism of MV without compromising oncolytic efficacy. This strategy can be adapted to different vectors and cancer entities for safe and efficient high-dose systemic administration in clinical trials.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25145311
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  • 10
    Abstract: Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are unique anticancer agents based on their pleotropic modes of action, which include, besides viral tumor cell lysis, activation of antitumor immunity. A panel of diverse viruses, often genetically engineered, has advanced to clinical investigation, including phase 3 studies. This diversity of virotherapeutics not only offers interesting opportunities for the implementation of different therapeutic regimens but also poses challenges for clinical translation. Thus, manufacturing processes and regulatory approval paths need to be established for each OV individually. This review provides an overview of clinical-grade manufacturing procedures for OVs using six virus families as examples, and key challenges are discussed individually. For example, different virus features with respect to particle size, presence/absence of an envelope, and host species imply specific requirements for measures to ensure sterility, for handling, and for determination of appropriate animal models for toxicity testing, respectively. On the other hand, optimization of serum-free culture conditions, increasing virus yields, development of scalable purification strategies, and formulations guaranteeing long-term stability are challenges common to several if not all OVs. In light of the recent marketing approval of the first OV in the Western world, strategies for further upscaling OV manufacturing and optimizing product characterization will receive increasing attention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27088104
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