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  • 1
    Keywords: Stem Cells ; Dermatology ; Stem Cells ; Regenerative Medicine/Tissue Engineering ; Dermatology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Chapter 1 All Roads Go to the Nucleus -- Chapter 2 DNA methylation as an epigenetic memory keeper during skin development and regeneration -- Chapter 3 Polycomb genes and their roles in skin development and regeneration -- Chapter 4 Trithorax genes in the control of keratinocyte differentiation -- Chapter 5 Histone deacetylase functions in epidermal development, homeostasis and cancer -- Chapter 6 The role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in the control of epidermal differentiation and skin stem cell activity -- Chapter 7 Orchestrated Role of microRNAs in Skin Development and Regeneration -- Chapter 8 Non-coding genome and its role in the control of gene expression -- Chapter 9 RNA modifications in the control of epidermal differentiation and stem cell activity -- Chapter 10 Enhancer-Promoter Interactions and Their Role in the Control of Epidermal Differentiation -- Chapter 11 Nuclear lamina as an interface between cytoskeleton and chromatin -- Chapter 12 Epigenetic mechanisms in the control of skin wound healing
    Abstract: This indispensable volume highlights recent studies identifying epigenetic mechanisms as essential regulators of skin development, stem cell activity and regeneration. Chapters are contributed by leading experts and promote the skin as an accessible model system for studying mechanisms that control organ development and regeneration. The timely discussions contained throughout are of broad relevance to other areas of biology and medicine and can help inform the development of novel therapeutics for skin disorders as well as new approaches to skin regeneration that target the epigenome. Part of the highly successful Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine series, Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration uncovers the fundamental significance of epigenetic mechanisms in skin development and regeneration, and emphasizes the development of new therapies for a number of skin disorders, such as pathological conditions of epidermal differentiation, pigmentation and carcinogenesis. At least six categories of researchers will find this book essential, including stem cell, developmental, hair follicle or molecular biologists, and gerontologists or clinical dermatologists
    Pages: XIII, 323 p. 27 illus., 24 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319167695
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Key words Hair growth ; C57BL/6 mice ; Denervation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Neuropeptides produced, stored and secreted by the unusually dense sensory and autonomic innervation of hair follicles (HFs) can induce hair growth (anagen) and may be involved in hair growth control. To test the role of follicle innervation of HF cycling in vivo, we generated innervation-deficient HFs by unilateral surgical denervation of a defined region of back skin in C57BL/6 mice and assessed its effect on spontaneous and induced anagen development. Successful denervation was demonstrated by the absence of PGP 9.5+ or tyrosine hydroxylase+ nerves and nerve-associated neuropeptides (substance P, CGRP). By quantitative histomorphometry, no significant difference in spontaneous or cyclosporin A-induced anagen development could be detected between sham-operated control skin and denervated skin. Only after hair growth induction by depilation, a discrete, marginally significant retardation of anagen development was apparent in denervated HFs. Thus, even though cutaneous nerves may exert a minor modulatory role in depilation-induced hair growth, they are not essential for normal murine anagen development.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Key words Mast cell ; Nerve fibers ; Avidin ; Neuropeptides ; Skin ; Hair cycle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Close contacts between mast cells (MC) and nerve fibers have previously been demonstrated in normal and inflamed skin by light and electron microscopy. A key step for any study in MC-nerve interactions in situ is to simultaneously visualize both communication partners, preferably with the option of double labelling the nerve fibers. For this purpose, we developed the following triple-staining technique. After paraformaldehyde-picric acid perfusion fixation, cryostat sections of back skin from C57BL/6 mice were incubated with a primary rat monoclonal antibody to substance P (SP), followed by incubation with a secondary goat-anti-rat TRITC-conjugated IgG. A rabbit antiserum to CGRP was then applied, followed by a secondary goat-anti-rabbit FITC-conjugated IgG. MCs were visualized by incubation with AMCA-labelled avidin, or (for a more convenient quantification of close MC-nerve fiber contacts) with a mixture of TRITC- and FITC-labelled avidins. Using this simple, novel covisualization method, we were able to show that MC-nerve associations in mouse skin are, contrary to previous suggestions, highly selective for nerve fiber types, and that these interactions are regulated in a hair cycle-dependent manner: in telogen and early anagen skin, MCs preferentially contacted CGRP-immunoreactive (IR) or SP/CGRP-IR double-labelled nerve fibers. Compared with telogen values, there was a significant increase in the number of close contacts between MCs and tyrosine hydroxylase-IR fibers during late anagen, and between MCs and peptide histidine-methionine-IR and choline acetyl transferase-IR fibers during catagen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Hair cycle regulation ; Mast cells ; Murine skin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0560
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to the skin causes apoptosis of keratinocytes. Melanocytes are more resistant to UV-induced apoptosis, due, in part, to high levels of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2. In vitro studies have shown that nerve growth factor (NGF), a neurotrophic polypeptide, is produced by keratinocytes and exerts a protective role for melanocytes by upregulating Bcl-2. The purpose of this study was to determine NGF and Bcl-2 modulations in UV-irradiated human skin.Methods:  Nine volunteers were irradiated with two minimal erythema doses using solar-simulated UV irradiation. Seventy-two hours post irradiation, skin biopsies were obtained from irradiated and sun-protected skin. The skin specimens were stained with anti-tyrosinase-related protein-1 monoclonal antibody IgG2a (Mel-5), anti-Bcl-2 (monoclonal antibody IgG-kappa), and with anti-NGF (polyclonal antibody IgG).Results:  NGF staining was identified within the cytoplasm of epidermal melanocytes, similar to the staining observed for TRP-1 and Bcl-2. While no significant difference in the number of TRP-1- and Bcl-2-positive melanocytes was observed between irradiated and non-irradiated skin within 72 h, the number of NGF-positive melanocytes decreased significantly, 72 h after UV irradiation (p 〈 0.024). NGF was also identified within keratinocytes, and while non-irradiated skin exhibited cytoplasmic NGF staining throughout the epidermis, NGF staining was reduced in the lower epidermal layers after UV irradiation.Conclusions:  This is the first in vivo study showing NGF to be present in melanocytes, as well as showing modulations of NGF and Bcl-2 in melanocytes, following solar-simulated UV irradiation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Experimental dermatology 8 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Since we have recently shown that the β2-adrenoreceptor (β2-AR) expression of selected regions of the hair follicle (HF) epithelium as well as the number of adrenergic nerve fibers in murine skin change in a hair cycle-dependent manner, this has raised the possibility that adrenergic nerves may exert “trophic” functions during HF cycling. To further explore this concept, we have investigated the effect of neuro-pharmacological manipulations on hair growth (anagen) induction in quiescent telogen mouse skin in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that subcutaneous injections of the noradrenaline (NA)-depleting agent guanethidine, or of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopaine, but not of the β2-AR agonist isoproterenol induce a premature onset of anagen in the lower back skin of C57BL/6 mice. On day 20 after the start of treatment, more than 80% of the guanethidine-treated mice and ca. 65% of the 6-hydroxydopamine-treated (6-OHDA) mice exhibited premature skin darkening and hair growth at the site of drug application, whereas less than one-third of all control animals showed macroscopic signs of anagen developent. This was confirmed by histology, demonstrating mature anagen VI HFs only at the immediate site of treatment with guanethidine of 6-OHDA as opposed to resting telogen HFs in the neighboring untreated skin area. This observation further supports the concept that sympathetic nerves are intimately involved in hair growth control and invites one to explore the neuro-pharmacological manipulation of piloneural interactions as a novel therapeutic strategy for the management of hair growth disorders.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Be doped GaN films grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are investigated. The room temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the films that were studied shows features in the 390–420 nm range, similar to those observed in Mg doped GaN films, and indicates that Be can form acceptor states about 250 meV above the valence band of GaN. This is in contrast to previous works on GaN:Be films where the only luminescence feature seen was a broad peak centered at 2.16 eV (560 nm). Hot probe measurement indicates p-type conduction for GaN:Be doped films without any postgrowth annealing. Current–voltage measurements of fabricated mesas of MBE grown layers, consisting of a GaN:Be doped film grown over a Si doped GaN layer, show p–n diodelike rectification. A weak electroluminescence at 380–390 nm is observed when the device is driven with a pulsed current of 600 mA. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 69 (1996), S. 559-561 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: P-type conductivity in as-grown Mg-doped GaN films grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy technique which employs ammonia as the nitrogen source is reported. Doping level and mobility of the films up to 4.5×1017 cm−3 and 6 cm2/V s, respectively, have been achieved without any post-growth treatments. The photoluminescence spectra show both band edge and Mg-related emission at room temperature. Neither annealing in nitrogen ambient furnace nor rapid thermal annealing was found to have any discernible influence on the electrical properties of the films. More than 6% of incorporated Mg was activated for the samples with relatively low Mg concentration. The measured activation energy of Mg acceptor was 160±5 meV. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 68 (1996), S. 1672-1674 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A new metallization scheme has been developed for obtaining very low Ohmic contact to n-GaN. The metallization technique involves the deposition of a composite metal layer Ti/Al/Ni/Au (150 A(ring)/2200 A(ring)/400 A(ring)/500 A(ring)) on n-GaN preceded by a reactive ion etching (RIE) process which most likely renders the surface highly n type. Of the several attempts and with annealing at 900 °C for 30 s, contacts with specific resistivity values of ρs=8.9×10−8 Ω cm2 or lower for a doping level of 4×1017 cm−3 were obtained. The physical mechanism underlying the realization of such a low resistivity is elucidated. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to probe the dynamics of optical transitions in GaN epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In particular, systematic measurements on a band-edge transition at about 3.42 eV have been carried out. Recombination lifetimes of this transition have been measured at different emission energies. Our results clearly show that the time-resolved photoluminescence can provide immense value in the understanding of the dynamic processes of optical transitions in GaN. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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