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  • 1
    ISSN: 0022-2828
    Keywords: Acidosis ; Force-velocity relation ; Maximum power output ; Skinned cardiac muscles
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Rat myocardium ; Postextrasystolic potentiation ; E-C coupling ; Length-tension relationship
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The degree and decay of postextrasystolic potentiation were studied in isolated rat papillary muscle atL max, the length at which developed force was maximum, and at shorter lengths. Potentiation curves were constructed relating the degree of potentiation with the time interval between any given extrasystole and the last steady-state beat. At all stimulation rates tested (ranging from 3 to 60/min), potentiation curves were found to be dependent on muscle length: at any interval the degree of potentiation increased progressively with decreasing initial muscle length. At all lengths and stimulation frequencies tested, the decay of potentiation was a function of the number of beats following the extrasystole. This relationship could be fitted by a single exponential equation. The exponential constant of the decay was significantly smaller atL max than at shorter lengths. These results suggest that muscle length affects more than one step of the E-C coupling processes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: skinned fibres ; myosin light chains ; maximum power out-put ; force-velocity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Force-velocity relations, myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myosin light chain (MLC) isoform composition of single skinned fibres from rat plantaris muscle were determined. In fibres containing the same (2X) isoform of myosin heavy chain, several parameters derived from the force-velocity relation and isometric force (Po) were tested for relation with the fibre content in alkali myosin light chain (MLC) isoforms. Whereas maximum shortening velocity was found to be proportional to the relative content in the 3f isoform of alkali MLC, velocity of shortening at 5% relative load, maximum power output, and Po were not. These results strengthen the idea that, in mammalian skeletal fibres, alkali MLC isoforms modulate shortening velocity at zero load, but suggest that they do not control the contractile behaviour at loads higher than zero.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Myocardium ; Thyroid hormones ; Forcevelocity ; Myosin ; Force-interval relation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study was designed to investigate the changes in cardiac contractile properties induced by triiodothyronine (T3) administration in adult rats. Myofibrils and myosin were isolated from ventricular muscles from euthyroid and hyperthyroid animals and enzymatically and electrophoretically characterized. The time course of the isometric response, the force velocity curve, the force interval relation were studied in papillary muscles isolated from the right ventricles of euthyroid and hyperthyroid rats. T3 administration induced significant increases in Mg2+ activated myofibrillar ATPase activity (+11.4%) and in Ca2+ activated myosin ATPase activity (+20.1%). Significant increases in shortening velocity at low and zero loads (+20.4%) were found in papillary muscles from treated animals when compared with the control muscles. These variations in enzymatic activity and shortening velocity could be related to the increase in the amount of the fast isomyosin V1, as shown by pyrophosphate gel electrophoresis. The negative force-frequency relation at steady state, typical of rat cardiac preparations, was observed in treated and control animals; its slope was, however, halved in hyperthyroid papillary muscles when compared with control ones. In accordance with this finding, the potentiating effect of a prolonged diastolic interval was significantly reduced in hyperthyroid papillary muscles. In the frame of an interpretation of the force interval relation on the basis of the excitation contraction coupling processes, these latter observations might indicate an enhanced activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. We conclude that thyroid hormone administration has a dual effect on cardiac contractility, on one hand regulating the synthesis of the different isomyosin and, on the other hand, stimulating the activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Key words Muscle ; Contraction ; Myosin heavy chain ; Exercise ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The contractile characteristics of three human muscle groups (triceps surae, quadriceps femoris and triceps brachii) of seven young male subjects were examined. The contractile properties were determined from electrically evoked isometric responses and compared with fibre type composition determined from needle biopsy samples. Fibre types were identified using myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms as molecular markers with gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and histochemical ATPase staining. Four contractile parameters (twitch time to peak torque, the maximal rate of torque development, frequency response and fatiguability) were found to be related to fibre type composition. From the biopsy samples, single muscle fibres were isolated and chemically skinned. Isometric tension (P o) unloaded shortening velocity (V o) and rate of tension rise (dP/dt) were determined. Each fibre was classified on the basis of its MHC isoform composition determined by SDS-PAGE. Fibres belonging to the same type showed identical contractile parameters regardless of the muscle of origin, except minor differences in P o of the fast fibres and dP/dt of slow fibres. The results are in favour of the conclusion that fibre type composition, determined using MHC isoforms as markers, is the major determinant of the diversity of contractile properties among human muscle groups.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To define the structural differences that are responsible for the functional diversity between orthologous sarcomeric myosins, we compared the rat and human β/slow myosins. Functional comparison showed that rat β/slow myosin has higher ATPase activity and moves actin filaments at higher speed in in vitro motility assay than human β/slow myosin. Sequence analysis shows that the loop regions at the junctions of the 25 and 50 kDa domains (loop 1) and the 50 and 20 kDa domains (loop 2), which have been implicated in determining functional diversity of myosin heavy chains, are essentially identical in the two orthologs. There are only 14 non-conservative substitutions in the two myosin heavy chains, three of which are located in the secondary actin-binding loop and flanking regions and others correspond to residues so far not assigned a functional role, including two residues in the proximal S2 domain. Interestingly, in some of these positions the rat β/slow myosin heavy chain has the same residues found in human cardiac α myosin, a fast-type myosin, and fast skeletal myosins. These observations indicate that functional and structural analysis of myosin orthologs with limited sequence diversity can provide useful clues to identify amino acid residues involved in modulating myosin function.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Single muscle fibres, isolated from the tibialis anterior muscle of the frog, were used to study intersarcomere dynamics during muscle-isometric (fixed-end) tetani at long sarcomere lengths. Sarcomere length was measured by an online laser diffraction technique. On the descending limb of the length-force relation, the slow rise of force (creep) was always associated with changes in sarcomere length. Sarcomeres at the ends of the fibres shortened, while those of the central 90% of the fibre length were stretched. Fibres were found to have a range of passive length-force curves, those with high resting forces developed little creep force, while low resting force fibres developed substantial creep, resulting in a fixed-end sarcomere length-force relation which deviated greatly from that expected from crossbridge theory. These differences in creep force can be qualitatively accounted for by differences in sarcomere dynamics. The simultaneous measurement of force and sarcomere length during force development allows the construction of a ‘sarcomere-isometric’ length-force curve from minima in the sarcomere length record. Force declined linearly from a plateau at 2.2 µm to zero at a sarcomere length close to 3.65 µm. The online, diffraction-derived sarcomere length was used in a feedback loop to clamp sarcomere length in short (100–200 µm) segments of fibres. A length-force curve constructed from sarcomere length-clamped tetani shows a linear decline in force from a plateau at 2.2 µm to zero at a sarcomere length of 3.65 µm.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Myosin heavy chain composition of a large number (288) of single fibres from slow (soleus), and fast (superficial part of tibialis anterior, and plantaris) muscles of adult (3–5-month-old) Wistar rats was determined. A combination of SDS-PAGE and monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chains allowed to identify four myosin heavy chain isoforms (1, 2A, 2X, and 2B) and to detect myosin heavy chain coexistence. Four groups of fibres containing only one myosin heavy chain (1 myosin heavy chain, 2A myosin heavy chain, 2X myosin heavy chain, and 2B myosin heavy chain), and five groups containing more than one myosin heavy chain 1 and 2A myosin heavy chains, 2A and 2X myosin heavy chains, 2X and minor amounts of 2B (2X-2B fibres), 2B and minor amounts of 2X (2B-2X fibres), and 2A, 2X, and 2B myosin heavy chain were identified and their relative percentages were assessed. Coexistence of fast myosin heavy chain isoforms was found to be very frequent (50% of the fibres in plantaris, and 30% in tibialis anterior), whereas coexistence of slow and fast (2A) myosin heavy chain was very rare. Maximum shortening velocity (V0) was determined using the slack-test procedure in a subset of 109 fast fibres from the above population. The values of V0 formed a continuum extending from 2A to 2X to 2X-2B to 2B-2X to 2B fibres. 2A fibres had the lowest value of V0 and 2B fibres the highest. Only the differences between 2A and 2B and 2A and 2B-2X fibres were statistically significant. Importantly, the variability of V0 in fibres containing only one myosin heavy chain and in fibres containing a variable proportion of two myosin heavy chain isoforms was similar and, in some case (e.g. 2B fibres), such to encompass the whole range of variation of fast fibres shortening velocities. The results of this study demonstrate that the large variability in maximum shortening velocity of fast fibres is not due to myosin heavy chain coexistence, and therefore suggest that it cannot be explained on the basis of myosin heavy chain composition.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Pharmacological interventions that increase myofiber size counter the functional decline of dystrophic muscles. We show that deacetylase inhibitors increase the size of myofibers in dystrophin-deficient (MDX) and α-sarcoglycan (α-SG)–deficient mice by inducing the expression of ...
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