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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mutagenesis of the vir region on the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens revealed a new locus, virJ, that is induced by the plant-wound signal molecule, acetosyringone (AS). virJ lies between virA and virB, and is transcribed in the same direction. The amino acid sequence of virJ is similar to a region of a previously characterized chromosomal gene, acvB, required for virulence. virJ can complement the avirulent phenotype of an acvB mutant, indicating that virJ and acvB encode the same factor required for tumorigenesis. Southern analysis revealed that virJ is present on the Ti plasmid of an octopine but not a nopaline strain whereas acvB is present on the chromosomes of both octopine and nopaline strains. While virJ is regulated by AS under the control of the virA/virG two-component regulatory system, acvB is not induced by AS. VirJ possesses a putative signal peptide and was found predominantly in the periplasmic fraction. The strain lacking both acvB and virJ had an impaired ability to transfer T-DNA into plant cells, suggesting that the factor encoded by virJ or acvB is required for T-DNA transfer from A. tumefaciens to plant cells. acvB is the first chromosomal gene implicated in T-DNA transfer, but whether it functions specifically for this process is not clear. We hypothesize that virJ evolved from acvB, presumably for a more specialized role in tumorigenesis.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: agroinfection ; Agrobacterium ; strains ; maize streak virus ; Gramineae ; maize
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Parameters affecting the efficiency of agroinfection of maize streak virus (MSV) in maize have been determined. Monomeric units, cloned at a number of sites in the MSV genome were not infectious but multimeric units containing partial duplications were equally as infectious as complete tandem dimeric clones. Inoculation of tandem dimeric units conjugated into different strains of Agrobacterium showed that both A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes were able to transfer DNA to maize and this ability was Ti (or Ri) plasmid-specific. Nopaline strains of A. tumefaciens and both agropine and mannopine A. rhizogenes strains efficiently transferred MSV DNA to maize. A number of strains were capable of MSV DNA transfer to other members of the Gramineae, providing information which may be essential for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of monocotyledonous plants.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens ; Agroinfection ; Geminivirus ; Wheat Dwarf Virus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cloned DNA of the geminivirus wheat dwarf virus (WDV) was successfully used to infect seedling wheat plants. The clone was derived from circular double-stranded viral DNA isolated from naturally infected tissue. The initiation of infection was mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens using cloned dimeric WDV genomes in a binary Agrobacterium vector. The WDV DNA which comprised the infectious clone was sequenced and is compared with the published sequence of a Swedish isolate of the same virus. The results confirm that the single WDV genome component of 2.75 kb carries all the information necessary for production of viral symptoms, virus particles and viral double- and single-stranded DNA forms.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Fusion protein ; geminivirus ; Gramineae ; single-stranded ; DNA virus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A polypeptide of approximately 11 000 daltons (11 kDa protein) encoded by an open reading frame (10.9 ORF) from the virion sense of maize streak virus (MSV) DNA has been detected among the products of in vitro translation reactions programmed with RNA from infected maize plants and also in total protein extracts from infected leaves. The 11 kDa protein has not been detected in virions and is therefore proposed to have a nonstructural role. Viral DNA with an additional in-frame translation stop codon in the 10.9 ORF was not infectious when transmitted to maize plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens “agroinfection”, suggesting that the 10.9 ORF may be essential for virus function. Computer comparison data show that equivalent ORFs in wheat dwarf virus (WDV) and digitaria streak virus (DSV) have some sequences in common with the 10.9 ORF of MSV. Further-more, the absence of similar sequences in geminiviruses which infect dicotyledonous plants suggests that the 11 kDa protein and its putative homologs in WDV and DSV have a function necessary only for those geminiviruses which infect the Gramineae. The significance of the 11 kDa protein in relation to expression of the virion sense DNA of MSV is discussed.
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