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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 72 (2001), S. 2214-2218 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The design and construction of a 75 mm bore laboratory gas gun capable of velocities up to 500 m s−1 is described. The performance of the gun is compared with the analytical interior ballistics model of Pidduck and Kent [A. E. Seigel, Report No. AGARDograph 91 (1965)]. The gun is constructed for two idealized loading geometries. One is plate impact, in which the loading is in one-dimensional strain, accomplished by impacting plane impactors onto targets aligned to micron tolerances, precisely normal to the impact axis. Another is pressure-shear in which the target and impacting plate are angled, but still aligned to the same tolerances. The system requires flexibility for addressing the problem of reactive targets when design must allow complete detonation of the target (up to 250 g). This has been accomplished and the system approved for use by the appropriate authorities. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 79 (1996), S. 3971-3974 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Direct measurements of the uniaxial strain behind wave fronts in shock-loaded glass specimens reveal several new aspects of their dynamic response. The measurements have been achieved by embedding longitudinal strain gauges in the shocked specimen in such a way that gauge length is along the shock propagation direction. Following the resistance changes of the gauges, we were able to find differences in the loading characteristics below and above the Hugoniot elastic limit of the glass, measure residual strains when shocked above this limit, and find interesting aspects of the strain histories behind the failure wave fronts. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 78 (1995), S. 3736-3739 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A mechanism for the compressive failure of soda-lime and borosilicate glasses is proposed based upon high-speed photography of impact on glasses. Shock loading was produced by the impact of a 50 mm diameter projectile so inducing shock states of one-dimensional strain in glass targets. The shock waves and failure fronts were visualised using the shadowgraph technique. The failure appeared to occur at discrete nucleation sites and propagated out to form a continuous front. The velocity of this front increased with higher impact stresses and varied with the glass composition. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 90 (2001), S. 1188-1191 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The lateral stress in a titanium aluminide alloy has been investigated under different impact conditions during shock loading, using embedded manganin stress gauges. From this, the variation of the materials shear strength with longitudinal stress has been determined. Results show that shear strength increases rapidly with increasing impact stress, as would be expected in a material that displays a high degree of work hardening. The results from this alloy have also been compared to those of a similar material, which was tested in a different microstructural state. Significant differences were noted and explained in terms of the variation in phase distribution and grain size. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 90 (2001), S. 1201-1207 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Measurement of the stress history at a Lagrangian position in a shocked solid has been accomplished by various means including the embedding of a thin metal piezoresistive gauge to equilibrate with the ambient conditions and register a component of the field around it. Some work has shown that such sensors may be used to show the decay of the elastic precursor amplitude recorded within a material with the distance travelled by the wave into it. Recent doubt has been placed upon the validity of such observations by pointing to an apparent increase in stress at small distances being due to an overshoot in the gauge record that results from a finite response time [J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5666 (2001)]. An analysis is presented to indicate in which regimes such effects may be important. It is compared with experiment to show the validity of the model developed. Additionally, it is used to show that some of the measured precursor decay may be a physical phenomenon in certain polycrystalline aluminas. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 89 (2001), S. 2576-2579 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The high-strain rate response of polymers is becoming increasingly important to understand, given their widespread use in many industries. In particular, they are used as bonding agents in the production of materials such as polymer bonded explosives. In this case, their properties become especially important to understand since the safety of the energetic composition depends upon their response. There are three broad classes of polymer microstructure; elastomers, thermoplastics, and thermosets. The shock response of one of the first of these three classes is investigated in this work. Work is described in which the Hugoniot of the material is investigated using plate impact experiments, measuring the stress at varying positions to determine the shock and the stress-particle velocity state. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 88 (2000), S. 7037-7040 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Samples of polymethylmethacrylate have been deformed by one-dimensional shock waves during plate impact. Manganin stress gauges have been introduced into the samples in such orientation that renders them sensitive to the lateral component of stress during shock loading. In combination with known Hugoniot data, these results have been used to determine the variation of shear strength with increasing impact stress. It has been observed that over the measured stress range, shear strength increases with increasing longitudinal stress. Comparison with the work of others shows close agreement. We also note that there is a small yet significant reduction in lateral stress, and hence an increase in shear strength behind the shock front. We believe this to be a manifestation of the viscoplastic response of this material. Finally, we observe no change in mechanical behavior at ∼2.0 GPa, where others have noticed large changes in thermal and electronic responses. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The shock induced phase transformation in potassium chloride (from the NaCl B1 structure to the CsCl B2 structure) has been investigated using constantan strain gauges. These gauges have been mounted in pressed, polycrystalline samples in an orientation that renders them sensitive to the uniaxial strain that characterizes the plate impact geometry. At the phase transformation stress (of ∼2 GPa), measured strains of ∼ −0.1 were observed, slightly higher than the values quoted in the literature. We suggested that residual porosity within the microstructure is a possible explanation. Over impact stresses of 2.5–4.0 GPa, total measured strains agree with the work of others at the lower end of our measured range, but are significantly lower at higher stresses. We suggest that this might be due to the nonequilibrium state of the material at the time of measurement. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 8457-8460 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Commercial strain gauges have been used to measure the plate impact behavior of type D, extra dense flint, a high density, lead filled glass. Impact stresses were in the range 2.0–4.6 GPa, just above the materials quoted Hugoniot elastic limit of 4.3±0.2 GPa. This glass (and similar materials) has been shown to display a reduction in shear strength across a slowly moving front (the failure wave) behind the main shock wave. At stresses below which this glass displays this feature, measured strains agree well with values calculated from the elastic relations. Above this stress, the failure wave leads to an increase in compressive strain, which has been correlated with measurements using other techniques. In this case, we show that the calculated values of strain agree only with the measured values behind the failure wave. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 86 (1999), S. 6707-6709 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Lateral stress measurements in a tungsten alloy, in combination with known Hugoniot data, have been used to find the shear strength of this material, and its variation with longitudinal shock stress, up to 14 GPa. Results show that the shear strength increases significantly with increasing stress. Prior to this work, there has been disagreement in the literature on the effect of shock stress on the shear strength of tungsten and its alloys. The present work agrees with the data obtained by Zhou and Clifton [J. Appl. Mech. 64, 487 (1997)] who used pressure shear. However, the range of stresses studied has been greatly extended. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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