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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cancer and metastasis reviews 15 (1996), S. 77-89 
    ISSN: 1573-7233
    Keywords: protease ; urokinase ; collagenase ; signal transduction ; transcription
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The invasive character of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck represents a major challenge to the clinician since most often these tumors require extensive surgical resection impairing important physiological functions including speech and swallowing. Additionally, in many cases costly reconstructive surgery is required to repair the adverse cosmetic effects of the resective surgery. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the molecular mechanism(s) which underlie the local and regional spread of this disease. Since the ability of tumor cells to invade into surrounding structures requires hydrolytic action much effort has been spent on identifying the hydrolases involved in this process. Some of the enzymes which have been implicated in the spread of head and neck cancer include the urokinase-type plasminogen activator and several members of the collagenase family such as type I and IV collagenases and the stromelysins synthesized either by the tumor cells or in the surrounding fibroblasts. More recent studies have addressed the mechanism(s) by which these hydrolases are overexpressed in invasive cancer. In the tumor cells themselves, work has focused on defining the transcriptional requirements for enzyme synthesis and addressing how the appropriate transcription factors are activated by signal transduction pathways. In contrast, where the hydrolases (e.g. stromelysin-2 and stromelysin-3) are produced by the fibroblasts, current investigations are directed at identifying tumor-derived growth factors which lead to the inducible expression of the enzymes in the stromal cells. The ultimate goal of these studies is to develop novel therapeutic interventions which decrease the invasive capacity of head and neck cancer leading to longer survival times and enhanced quality of life for patients afflicted with this disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7373
    Keywords: glioblastoma invasion ; matrigel ; serine proteases ; metalloproteases ; serpins ; tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The invasive nature of human gliomas represents a major factor in preventing their total resection. The exact nature of the underlying mechanisms of tumor cell invasion are still unclear. In this study, we have quantitatively assayed a glioblastoma cell line for its ability to migrate through a polycarbonate filter coated with matrigel which contains a complex of multiple basement membrane components. At 48 h the glioblastoma cell line (U251) showed a rate of invasiveness of 42% and also dependent on the concentration of matrigel. The U251 cell line produced a urokinase type plasminogen activator and a 92-KDa type IV collagenase. Both enzymes were inhibited by the addition of uPA and 92-KDa type IV collagenase antibodies. Those same antibodies reduced the invasion rate of U251 cells from 42% to 12 and 21%, respectively. Similarly, the addition of ɛ-aminocaproic acid (a plasmin inhibitor) or tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease (TIMP2, a collagenase inhibitor) reduced the invasiveness of U251 cells from 42% to 14% and 10%, respectively. Additionally, the other two glioblastoma cell lines (LG11, UWR1) and astrocytes showed a rate of invasiveness at 41%, 61% and 12%, respectively. Finally, the addition of hyaluronic acid to the matrigel, a constituent of brain extracellular matrix, enhanced the rate of invasion. These findings provide evidence for the role of serine proteases and metalloproteases in facilitating the invasion of extracellular matrix components by glioblastoma cell line and suggest a therapeutic role for protease inhibitors in attempting to minimize the invasive propensity of gliomas.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: urokinase-type plasminogen activator ; ERK ; MAPK ; c-raf ; AP-1 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The urokinase-type plasminogen activator contributes to tissue remodeling by controlling the synthesis of the extracellular matrix-degrading plasmin. We undertook a study to determine the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) in the regulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in a squamous cell carcinoma cell line (UM-SCC-1) that contains a transcriptionally activated urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene. Transient transfection studies using a CAT reporter driven by the urokinase-type plasminogen activator promoter, which had progressive 5′ deletions or which had been point-mutated, indicated the requirement of binding sites for AP-1 (-1967) and PEA3 (-1973) for its maximal activation. Expression of a mutant jun protein, which lacks the transactivation domain, caused a dose-dependent repression of a CAT reporter driven by either the urokinase-type plasminogen activator promoter or three tandem AP-1 repeats upstream of a thymidine kinase minimal promoter indicating the importance of AP-1-binding transcription factor(s) in the regulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator synthesis. Mobility shift assays with UM-SCC-1 nuclear extract revealed binding of fos and junD proteins to an oligonucleotide spanning the AP-1 site at -1967. In-gel kinase assays indicated the constitutive activation of ERK1, which regulates fos synthesis via phosphorylation of p621CT, but not ERK2, in UM-SCC-1 cells. Moreover, the expression of a dominant-negative ERK1, but not ERK2, repressed urokinase-type plasminogen activator promoter activity. Similarly, interfering with the function of the c-raf serine-threonine kinase, which lies upstream of ERK1, by the expression of a kinase-inactive c-raf repressed the activity of a CAT reporter driven by either the urokinase-type plasminogen activator promotor or tandem AP-1 repeats. These data suggest that urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in UM-SCC-1 cells is regulated partly by an ERK1, but not ERK2, -dependent signaling pathway. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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