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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: KeyWordsCytoskeleton ; Neurofibrillary tangle Neuropil thread ; Tau protein ; Abnormal phosphorylation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Frontal sections of the temporal lobe including the transentorhinal/entorhinal region, amygdala, and/or hippocampus from human adult brains are studied for cytoskeleton changes using immunostaining with the antibodies AT8 and Alz-50 and selective silver impregnation methods for neurofibrillary changes of the Alzheimer type. For the purpose of correlation, the two methods are carried out one after the other on the same section. Layer pre-α in the transentorhinal/entorhinal region harbours nerve cells which are among the first nerve cells in the entire brain to show the development of neurofibrillary changes. This presents the opportunity for study of both early events in the destruction of the cytoskeleton in individual neurons, and to relate changes which occur in the neuronal processes in the absence of alterations in their immediate surroundings to those happening in the soma. Immunoreactions with the AT8 antibody in particular reveal a clear sequence of changes in the neuronal cytoskeleton. Group 1 neurons present initial cytoskeleton changes in that the soma, dendrites, and axon are completely marked by granular AT8 immunoreactive material. These neurons appear quite normal and turn out to be devoid of argyrophilic material when observed in silver-stained sections. Group 2 neurons show changes in the cellular processes. The terminal tuft of the apical dendrite is replaced by tortuous varicose fibres and coarse granules. The distal protions of the dendrites are curved and show appendages and thickened portions. Intensely homogeneously immunostained rod-like inclusions are encountered in these thickened portions and in the soma. A number of these rod-like inclusions are visible after silver staining, as well. Group 3 neurons display even more pronounced alterations of their distal – most dendritic portions. The intermediate dendritic parts lose immunoreactivity, but the soma is homogeneously immunostained. Silver staining reveals in most of the distal dendritic parts neuropil threads, and in the soma a classic neurofibrillary tangle. Group 4 structures are marked by accumulations of coarse AT8-immunoreactive granules. Silver staining provides evidence that the fibrillary material has become an extraneuronal, “early” ghost tangle. Finally, group 5 structures present “late” ghost tangles in silver-stained sections but fail to demonstrate AT8 immunoreactivity. It is suggested that the altered tau protein shown by the antibody AT8 represents an early cytoskeleton change which eventually leads to the formation of argyrophilic neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Sex difference ; Hypothalamus ; Paraventricular nucleus ; Supraoptic nucleus ; Neurofibrillary changes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Severe neurofibrillary changes were identified in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of elderly individuals using markers for Alzheimer’s disease-related intraneuronal pathology. This neurofibrillary pathology is remarkable in that the magnocellular paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei are particularly resistant to Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, the changes were observed even in non-demented controls, indicating that they develop independently of Alzheimer’s disease. The alterations in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei were consistently accompanied by neurofibrillary changes in the mediobasal hypothalamus.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Argyrophilic grain disease ; Tau protein ; Cytoskeletal alterations ; Human hypothalamus ; Lateral tuberal nucleus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The tuberal region of the human hypothalamus was examined for cytoskeletal changes related to argyrophilic grain disease (AGD). Hypothalamic sections of eight individuals afflicted with AGD and eight controls were cut serially in the frontal plane at 100 μm. The presence of argyrophilic AGD-related pathology was demonstrated utilizing the modified Gallyas silver iodide technique. Tau-positive cytoskeletal changes were stained by the phosphorylation-dependent antibody AT8. A characteristic pattern of tau-positive cytoskeletal alterations was revealed in the tuberal hypothalamus of AGD cases, while controls were devoid of such changes. The lateral tuberal nucleus was found to be particularly susceptible to AGD, demonstrating numerous tau-positive grains and neuronal cell bodies. Similar alterations were present to a moderate degree in the ventromedial nucleus. A previously unreported, conspicuous accumulation of tau-positive oligodendrocytes (coiled bodies) and interfascicular thread-like fibers was detected in the column of the fornix. Only sparse argyrophilic changes were noted in consecutive silver-stained sections, comprised mainly of accumulations of spindle-shaped grains within the lateral tuberal nucleus. Remarkably, a pronounced expression of AGD-related alterations was seen in the absence of hypothalamic changes related to other tau-positive cytoskeletal disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The present findings support the concept that AGD is a distinct neurodegenerative entity afflicting not only cortical but also subcortical predilection sites of the human brain.
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  • 4
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    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 163 (1982), S. 447-460 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Claustrum ; Golgi technique ; Projection neuron ; Local circuit neuron
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neuronal types of the human clastrum have been investigated by means of a transparent Golgi technique which enables one to study the characteristics of not only the cellular processes but also the marking features of the nuclei, the cellular organelles, and the paraplasmic substances of various types of nerve cells. Five varieties of neurons have been distinguished: Type I represents a class of spiny nerve cells varying to a certain extent in size and shape. These cells contain fine and widely dispersed lipofuscin granules which can only faintly be tinged by aldehydefuchsin. Type II cells are large aspiny neurons. Their cell bodies contain a great number of deeply stained coarse pigment granules. Type III cells are large aspiny neurons devoid of pigment deposits. Type IV is a small pigment-laden aspiny neuron. Type V is a small aspiny neuron devoid of lipofuscin granules. The pattern of pigmentation revealed by the different types of nerve cells turns out to be highly characteristic. It can well be used for classification of the various types of nerve cells which occur within the reaches of the claustrum.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 154 (1978), S. 213-240 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Man ; Cerebral cortex ; Temporal lobe ; Architectonics ; Lipofuscin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The areas of the human temporal lobe have been examined by means of stereomicroscopical observations of 800 μm thick pigment preparations. Most of the various allocortical and isocortical layers are characteristically pigmented and can be distinguished from one another. Anteromedial parts of the temporal lobe are occupied by different fields which are entirely composed of allocortical laminae. These allocortical core fields clearly influence a widespread transitional region adjacent to it. Since some of the allocortical laminae tend to transgress the limits of their parent fields, the immediately following areas reveal a mixed composition of both allocortical and isocortical laminae. These areas together form the periallocortical belt region which is particularly expanded anteromedially but becomes elongated and attenuated posterolaterally. The neighbouring isocortex can be divided into a marginal zone adjoining the periallocortical belt (proisocortex) and the mature isocortex (sensu stricto). Pigment preparations reveal clear structural differences between the cortex covering the superior temporal gyrus and that spreading over the subjacent convolutions. The isocortex of the superior temporal gyrus is mainly composed of the granulous core field, the proconiocortical and paraconiocortical areas, and the laterally extended magnopyramidal fields. The subjacent convolutions are occupied by two richly pigmented and extended areas, the posterior one of which shows a remarkable narrow light stripe within the lower reaches of the pyramidal layer (area temporalis stratiformis).
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Man ; Cerebral cortex ; Temporal lobe ; Sensory speech region ; Architectonics ; Lipofuscin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Posterior parts of the human superior temporal gyrus have been examined by means of stereomicroscopical observations of pigment preparations up to 800 μm thick. As a rule, the proximal half of the first transverse gyrus of Heschl is covered by an extremely lightly pigmented coniocortex which is surrounded by belt areas, a proconiocortex anteriorly and paraconiocortical fields posteriorly and laterally. The paraconiocortex is divisible into a primitively organized part lying just behind the coniocortical core and a more advanced portion forming the temporal magnopyramidal region. This extended lateralmost part of the paraconiocortex is more or less richly endowed with unusually large and pigment-rich IIIc-pyramids. Third layer pyramidal cells showing densely aggregated lipofuscin deposits are rarely encountered within the human isocortex. As regards the temporal lobe, pyramids of this type, in general, do not occur outside the magnopyramidal region. The magnopyramidal region covers only a part of the temporal plane but extends much more in the lateral direction spreading over distal portions of the first and the second transverse gyri, posterior parts of the exposed surface of the superior temporal gyrus and those of its lower wall. The extension of the magnopyramidal region varies considerably from one side of the brain to the other. It is also subject to a pronounced variation from one individual to another. On account of its localization and its uniqueness in cortical structure, the temporal magnopyramidal region is considered to represent the morphological counterpart of the sensory speech centre of Wernicke.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Pars cerebellaris loci coerulei ; Man ; Neuronal loss ; Aging ; Biomathematical analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pars cerebellaris loci coerulei is a flat accumulation of perikarya representing a subnucleus of the locus coeruleus in the roof of the fourth ventricle of the brain in man. A quantitative study was done on this subnucleus; it comprised 67 specimens from individuals between 11 and 90 years. Nerve cell counts were performed on cleared mounted block preparations. Mathematical analysis of the data was performed using logistic growth functions. The results showed that with advancing age there is a loss of neurons in both sexes. This begins in the female approximately after age 40; in the male already at age 20 (reaching a lower value in old age). The final loss of neurons is more pronounced in the male than in the female. Male and female specimens did not differ in the total number of neurons. In both sexes the left side of the pars cerebellaris loci coerulei contained more neurons than the right.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Cerebellum ; Cerebellar cortex (man) ; Golgi technique ; Lipofuscin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The large nerve cells of the granular layer of the human cerebellar cortex have been investigated by means of a newly developed Golgi technique that reveals the pigmentation pattern of individual nerve cells through transparent impregnations of their cell bodies and cellular processes. Three types of large nerve cells have been distinguished: Type I cells correspond to the Golgi cells. They have a rounded or polygonal cell body with only a few dendrites that radiate in all directions. The axon ramifies profusely, close to the parent soma. Cells of this type are most frequently encountered among the large cells of the granular layer. Type I cells contain only a few pigment granules. Type II cells have a fusiform or triangular cell body with a few rather extended dendrites that rarely ramify. Cells of this type are either devoid of pigment or contain a few large pigment granules that can be stained intensely by aldehydefuchsin. Type III cells are multipolar neurons with a fair number of dendrites originating from any point of the soma. The dendrites extend into the deep portions of the molecular layer. Here and also within the Purkinje cell layer they repeatedly branch off forming a dense dendritic arborization. Cells of this type are evenly distributed throughout the entire granular layer and throughout the adjacent portions of the Purkinje cell layer and the white matter as well. Type III cells are filled with tightly packed lipofuscin granules. The pattern of pigmentation is characteristic for each of these neuronal types. The three types of large nerve cells within the granular layer of the human cerebellar cortex can therefore be distinguished not only in Golgi impregnations but also in pigment-Nissl preparations.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Hippocampus (man) ; Ammon's horn ; Non-pyramidal neuron ; Glutamic acid decarboxylase-immunocytochemistry ; Lipofuscin ; Pigmentoarchitectonics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) immunoreactive neurons, fibres and punctae in sector CA 1 of the adult human Ammon's horn was studied in Vibratome sections (40 μm thick) of tissue obtained at surgery and autopsy. On light microscopical examination, the materal did not show pathological changes. The antibody was visualized by the unlabelled antibody enzyme method. GAD-immunoreactive neurons, fibres and punctae were present in all layers. Most immunoreactive neurons were located in the stratum pyramidale and stratum lacunosum. Their size ranged from 8 μm in the stratum lacunosum to about 50 μm in the stratum oriens. The somata offered a wide range of shapes, multiform to fusiform with the long axis aligned parallel or vertically to the alveus. All somata belonged to the heterogeneous group of non-pyramidal neurons. The dendrites either radiated in all directions or tended to run in two opposite directions. After bleaching the chromogen and staining for lipofuscin pigment granules and basophilic material, it turned out that within the stratum pyramidale all formerly GAD-immunoreactive neurons belonged to the group of lipofuscin-laden non-pyramidal neurons. Within the other layers, a few formerly GAD-immunoreactive neurons were devoid of lipofuscin pigment. The highest density of GAD-immunoreactive punctae was found in the stratum lacunosum. In addition to numerous GAD-immunoreactive punctae in the pyramidal layer and in the stratum radiatum there were thin GAD-immunoreactive fibres of varying length extending into various directions.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 175 (1987), S. 315-330 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Man ; Hypothalamus ; Chiasmatic region ; Neurosecretory nuclei ; Cytoarchitectonics pigmentoarchitectonics ; Lipofuscin ; Neuronal types
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The human hypothalamus can be divided into a chiasmatic region, a tuberal region, and a mamillary region. The chiasmatic region comprises the magnocellular neurosecretory nuclei, several nuclei that are mainly formed of small nerve cells, and an ill-defined nerve cell assembly referred to as the chiasmatic gray. Small to medium-sized bipolar nerve cells predominate in the chiasmatic gray. With the use of Nissl preparations counterstained for demonstration of lipofuscin pigment, four types of neurons have been distinguished. Type I cells contain coarse and intensely stained lipofuscin granules. Type II cells are characterized by dense accumulations of small granules. Type III neurons harbour only a fine scattering of dust-like granules while type IV neurons are devoid of pigment. Pigmentoarchitectonic analysis of the chiasmatic region reveals the presence of eight nuclei embedded in or partially surrounded by the chiasmatic gray. The intermediate nucleus is a small compact accumulation of non-pigmented nerve cells located at the level of the optic chiasm half way between the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus. The periventricular nucleus and the uncinate nucleus are mainly formed of small pigment-laden type I and type II cells and appear as an anterior, respectively lateral extension of the paraventricular nucleus. Besides non-specific small cells, three neuronal types can be distinguished in the paraventricular nucleus on account of characteristic differences in their pigmentation. The supraoptic nucleus is formed of only two types of nerve cells. The cuneiform nucleus extends from the supraoptic nucleus to the ependymal lining of the third ventricle separating the suprachiasmatic nucleus from the retrochiasmatic nucleus. The suprachiasmatic nucleus contains the smallest neurons of the region. Cells of this nucleus are devoid of lipofuscin pigment. The retrochiasmatic nucleus is formed of a heterogeneous population of small and unusually large nerve cells. Numerous melanin-containing nerve cells and accumulations of nerve cells belonging to the lateral tuberal nucleus can be encountered within the boundaries of this nucleus as well. The technique and the data presented provide a basis for investigations of the aged and the diseased human brain.
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