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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Brain topography 3 (1990), S. 349-355 
    ISSN: 1573-6792
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6792
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6792
    Keywords: Event-related brain potential mapping ; Gradient ; Current source density ; Microstates ; Language ; Sentence reading ; Topography of N400
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We analyzed topography and strength of 20 channel event-related potential maps to sentence endings differing in correctness, verbal vs. nonverbal surface form, priming, and repetition count. Seventeen healthy subjects silently read correct and incorrect versions of simple sentences with predictable color endings, and of more complex sentences with predictable composite word endings. Color endings appeared in verbal and nonverbal form. Measures of map topography (centroids of the positive and negative areas of the average referenced maps) and strength (Global Field Power) were analyzed. Adaptive segmentation distinguished a pre-N400 and a N400 microstate in the N400 time range. Topography differed between these two microstates, between verbal and nonverbal endings, and between correct color, incorrect color, and incorrect noncolor words. All verbal endings evoked left-lateralized negativity and right lateralized positivity in the pre-N400 microstates. Correct verbal endings evoked consistent posterior positivity and anterior negativity with left-lateralized gradient strength suggesting language-specific processing. New, incorrect noncolor words evoked reversed anterior-posterior N400 and pre-N400 map topographies with more anterior positivity and more posterior negativity than correct colors in each subject. Gradient strength and current source density maps also differed from those to correct colors. Strongest gradients were left-posterior in the pre-N400 but anterior in the N400 microstate, consistent with anterior activity contributing to the posterior N400 negativity. Incorrect and correct colors, which were semantically primed and repeated, showed smaller topographic differences and N400 effects with a different topography. These different maps can not arise by modulation of a single pattern of neural activity and show that the N400 time range consists of multiple distinct microstates.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The role of movement repetition and practice has been extensively studied as an aspect of motor skill learning but has rarely been investigated in its own right. As practice is considered a prerequisite for motor learning we expected that even the repetitive execution of a simple movement would rapidly induce changes in neural activations without changing performance. We used 64-channel event-related potential mapping to investigate these effects of movement repetition on corresponding brain activity in humans. Ten healthy right-handed young adults performed a power grip task under visual force control to ensure constant behaviour during the experimental session. The session consisted of two parts intersected by a break. For analysis each part was subdivided into two runs to control for potential attention or fatigue effects, which would be expected to disappear during the break. Microstate analysis revealed that distinct topographies and source configurations during movement preparation, movement execution and feedback integration are responsive to repetition. The observed patterns of changes differed for the three microstates, suggesting that different, repetition-sensitive neural mechanisms are involved. Moreover, this study clearly confirms that movement repetition, in the absence of skill learning, is capable of inducing changes in neural networks.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Twelve subjects were tested with D-amphetamine, yohimbine, clonidine, and a placebo on a task with two levels of stimulus and two levels of response complexity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that noradrenergic durgs affect early stimulus processes. D-amphetamine speeded reaction time (RT), clonidine slowed it, and yohimbine had no effect. D-amphetamine and yohimbine decreased N1 latency and clonidine increased it. D-amphetamine and yohimbine decreased P3 latency and clonidine increased it but, in each case, only when latency estimates were based on single trials, not on averages. D-amphetamine's effect on RT, not P3, as measured by the average, is consistent with previous results. Single trial measures appear more sensitive. Speeding of N1 and single-trial P3 data indicate that noradrenergic durgs affect processing of early (visual) information. D-amphetamine's speeding of single-trial P3 estimates was attributed to its noradrenergic actions. Yohimbine's speeding of P3 without changing RT is consistent with neural net (parallel) simulations but not with a serial model. These findings support the assumption that different neurotransmitters modulate specific cognitive processes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Objective:  The aim of this follow-up study was to investigate the course of performance in attentional tasks in children with ADHD and normal controls in late childhood and preadolescence over short periods of time. The development of two dimensions of attention was compared: alertness/arousal and inhibitory control.Method:  Children with ADHD (N = 28) and normal controls (N = 25) were examined at three times: at baseline (age mean = 10.8 years, SD = 1.5), after one year (age mean = 12.0 years, SD = 1.6), and after 2.6 years (age mean = 13.3 years, SD = 1.6). They performed two tasks of a computerized battery for attentional performance: Alertness – a test of simple reaction time to visual stimuli contrasting a condition with and without auditory warning signal, and Incompatibility – a test of spatial interference/inhibitory control. Clinical diagnosis according to DSM-III-R criteria was established at time 1 and time 3 by structured diagnostic interviews.Results:  In the Alertness task significant group differences regarding increased reaction time variability in ADHD, but not for reaction time itself, were found at time 1 and more pronounced at time 2. At time 3 group differences had disappeared. In the Incompatibility task group differences in number of errors were not observed at time 1, whereas children with ADHD made significantly more errors at time 2 and less pronounced at time 3. The degree of clinical symptom remission after 2.6 years was not related to changes in neuropsychological performance.Conclusion:  When measuring attentional functions, the selection of an appropriate time window seems to be essential for the detection of group differences between ADHD children and controls, because group differences are most pronounced before adolescence. The different developmental course of selective components of attention should be taken into account.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background: To evaluate the impact of psychopathological comorbidity with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) on brain electrical correlates in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to study the pathophysiological background of comorbidity of ADHD+ODD/CD.Method: Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a cued continuous performance test (CPT-A-X) in children (aged 8 to 14 years) with ICD-10 diagnoses of either hyperkinetic disorder (HD; n=15), hyperkinetic conduct disorder (HCD; n=16), or ODD/CD (n=15) and normal children (n=18). HD/HCD diagnoses in all children were fully concordant with the DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD-combined type. ERP-microstates, i.e., time segments with stable brain electrical map topography were identified by adaptive segmentation. Their characteristic parameters and behavioral measures were further analyzed.Results: Children with HD but not comorbid children showed slower and more variable reaction times compared to control children. Children with HD and ODD/CD-only but not comorbid children displayed reduced P3a amplitudes to cues and certain distractors (distractor-X) linked to attentional orienting. Correspondingly, global field power of the cue-CNV microstate related to anticipation and preparation was reduced in HD but not in HCD. Topographical alterations of the HD occurred already in the cue-P2/N2 microstate. In sum, the comorbid group was less deviant than both the HD-group and the ODD/CD-group.Conclusions: The findings suggest that HD children (ADHD-combined type without ODD/CD) suffer from a more general deficit (e.g., suboptimal energetical state regulation) including deficits of attentional orienting and response preparation than just a response inhibitory deficit, backing the hypothesis of an involvement of a dysregulation of the central noradrenergic networks. The results contradict the hypothesis that ADHD+ODD/CD represents an additive co-occurrence of ADHD and ODD/CD and strongly suggest that it represents a separate pathological entity as considered in the ICD-10 classification system, which differs from both HD and ODD/CD-only.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Interhemispheric interactions were studied with functional brain mapping of visual processing. Children performed a reaction time task with uni- and bilateral targets and nontargets. The visual evoked potential (VEP) was segmented into P1a, P1b, and N1 microstates using map rather than channel features. Map latencies, amplitudes and sources were tested for bilateral interactions. Bilateral targets yielded shorter VEP map latencies but later response onsets than unilateral ones. Source analyses of the unilateral VEPs indicated a transition from contra- (P1a) to ipsilateral (P1b) visual cortex activation (interhemispheric transfer). Bilateral VEPs were smaller than the summed unilateral VEPs in all microstates, indicating that interhemispheric interactions both precede and follow interhemispheric transfer. Brain mapping of uni- and bilateral VEPs in children thus revealed several distinct forms of interhemispheric interactions in the same, early time range.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: We measured performance and event-related brain potential (ERP) map latencies in 12 subjects during four visual discrimination tasks to compare the timing of scopolamine effects on information processing and attention. “Topographic component recognition” found ERP map latencies at times of best fit with a component model map. This “common topography” criterion minimized topographic differences among conditions to facilitate latency interpretations. Scopolamine slowed N1 latency in all tasks, and P3 and reaction time in some tasks. The drug delayed responses to easy targets more than to hard targets. It also induced a disproportionate N1 delay for unilateral high spatial frequency gratings. Both effects reflect a scopolamine-induced impairment when processing targets that usually capture attention. Scopolamine also impaired accuracy for unilateral high spatial frequency gratings, and for gratings presented at probable locations, confirming and extending previous findings. Scopolamine-induced P1 and N1 delays showed that visual processing was affected. Several results were inconsistent with a serial stage model. We suggest that scopolamine both delays selected processes and impairs a processing mode based on automatic capture of attention, inducing more serial processing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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