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  • 1
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; MORTALITY ; OBESITY ; smoking ; REGRESSION-MODELS ; MASS INDEX ; OVERWEIGHT ; ALS PATIENTS ; NUTRITIONAL-STATUS ; HYPERMETABOLISM
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the association between body fat and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with an appropriate prospective study design. METHODS: The EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study included 518,108 individuals recruited from the general population across 10 Western European countries. At recruitment, information on lifestyle was collected and anthropometric characteristics were measured. Cox hazard models were fitted to investigate the associations between anthropometric measures and ALS mortality. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-two ALS deaths (79 men and 143 women) occurred during the follow-up period (mean follow-up = 13 years). There was a statistically significant interaction between categories of body mass index and sex regarding ALS risk (p = 0.009): in men, a significant linear decrease of risk per unit of body mass index was observed (hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.86-0.99 per kg/m(2)); among women, the risk was more than 3-fold increased for underweight compared with normal-weight women. Among women, a significant risk reduction increasing the waist/hip ratio was also evident: women in the top quartile had less than half the risk of ALS compared with those in the bottom quartile (hazard ratio = 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.25-0.93) with a borderline significant p value for trend across quartiles (p = 0.056). CONCLUSION: Increased prediagnostic body fat is associated with a decreased risk of ALS mortality.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23390184
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: Large epidemiological prospective studies represent an important opportunity for investigating risk factors for rare diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we describe the procedures we used for ascertaining PD cases in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. METHODS: The following three-phase procedure was used: (1) elaboration of a NeuroEPIC4PD template for clinical data collection, (2) identification of all potential PD cases via record linkage and (3) validation of the diagnosis through clinical record revision, in a population of 220,494 subjects recruited in 7 European countries. All cases were labelled with the NeuroEPIC4PD diagnoses of 'definite', 'very likely', 'probable', or 'possible' PD. RESULTS: A total of 881 PD cases were identified, with over 2,741,780 person-years of follow-up (199 definite, 275 very likely, 146 probable, and 261 possible). Of these, 734 were incident cases. The mean age at diagnosis was 67.9 years (SD 9.2) and 458 patients (52.0%) were men. Bradykinesia was the most frequent presenting motor sign (76.5%). Tremor-dominant and akinetic rigid forms of PD were the most common types of PD. A total of 289 patients (32.8%) were dead at the time of the last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This exercise proved that it is feasible to ascertain PD in large population-based cohort studies and offers a potential framework to be replicated in similar studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26375921
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  • 3
    Abstract: Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected thorough standardised questionnaires. Total PA was expressed by the Cambridge Physical Activity Index (CPAI) and analysed in relation to ALS mortality, using Cox hazard models. Interactions with age, sex, and anthropometric measures were assessed. Total PA was weakly inversely associated with ALS mortality with a borderline statistically significant trend across categories (p = 0.042), with those physically active being 33 % less likely to die from ALS compared to those inactive: HR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.42-1.06). Anthropometric measures, sex, and age did not modify the association with CPAI. The present study shows a slightly decreased-not increased like in case-control studies-risk of dying from ALS in those with high levels of total PA at enrolment. This association does not appear confounded by age, gender, anthropometry, smoking, and education. Ours was the first prospective cohort study on ALS and physical activity.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26968841
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Neuropathological staging ; Alzheimer’s disease ; Neurofibrillary tangles ; Pathological hierarchy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The neuropathological staging model of Alzheimer’s disease proposed by Braak and Braak [Acta Neuropathol (1991) 82 : 259] requires that the evolution of neurofibrillary pathology follows a predictable pattern that can be ordered in a regular regional hierarchy. We have operationalized the neuropathological staging system to permit testing of its validity. Forty-two cases were derived from an epidemiological study of cognitive function in an elderly population for which post-mortem brain tissue was collected. Cases with neuropathological diagnoses other than Alzheimer’s disease and normal aging were excluded. Neurofibrillary tangle counts were determined in all cortical laminae and regions used for staging. There was a significant correlation between the overall extent of neurofibrillary pathology and the number of regions affected. There were frequent order violations in the proposed hierarchy: 19 instances (45%) involving entorhinal and transentorhinal cortices, and 16 instances (38%) involving CA1 of hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Only 6 out of 42 cases conformed in all regions to the expected hierarchy. Nevertheless, 90% of the cases had 2 order violations or less, supporting the approximate validity of the hierarchy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1433-9285
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This paper summarises the methods and some of the findings of a large cohort study of dementia and cognitive decline in subjects aged over 75 years in Cambridge, particularly regarding the incidence wave. From a sample of 1968 subjects previously studied in a prevalence study in 1985–1987, survivors were restudied at 2.4 years, in a two-stage design employing the Mini; Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMDEX). High incidence rates of dementia were found, which rose steeply with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease. New minimal dementia and milder cognitive impairment were also common. Cognitive decline on the MMSE showed a near normal, non-bimodal distribution. The sample has since been restudied at intervals for a total of up to 9 years to document longitudinal cognitive change. Brains have been obtained for post mortem neuropathological and molecular biological study, particularly of the early sequential changes associated with cognitive decline and dementia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Aging ; Neuropathological staging ; Alzheimer's disease ; Neurofibrillary tangles ; CAMDEX
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The neuropathological staging model proposed by Braak and Braak (1991) implies that the evolution of neurofibrillary pathology follows a predictable sequence and can be ordered in a regular regional hierarchy. A total of 42 cases of an elderly population sample, which had been prospectively clinically assessed, were examined. Clinical diagnosis was made according to the CAMDEX criteria, and the sample reported here did not include cases were vascular dementia according to the criteria proposed by Chui et al. (1991). The neuropathological staging procedure was applied as originally proposed by Braak and Braak (1991). In addition, in all cortical laminae and regions which are essential for the staging model neurofibrillary tangles were quantified. Demented cases had significantly more areas involved and more advanced neuropathological stages. Cases with stages 1–3 tended to be non-demented, and cases with stages 4–6 tended to be demented. However, there was a considerable degree of overlap and no clear-cut threshold could be established. This brings into question the diagnostic value of the staging model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-18
    Description: Objectives In 2012–2013, the English National Health Service mandated hospitals to conduct systematic case-finding of people with dementia among older people with unplanned admissions. The method was not defined. The aim of this study was to understand current approaches to dementia case-finding in acute hospitals in England and explore the views of healthcare professionals on perceived benefits and challenges. Design Qualitative study involving interviews, focus groups and thematic content analysis. Setting Primary care and secondary care across six counties in the East of England. Participants Hospital staff involved in dementia case-finding and primary care staff in the catchment areas of those hospitals. Results We recruited 23 hospital staff and 36 primary care staff, including 30 general practitioners (GPs). Analysis resulted in three themes: (1) lack of consistent approaches in case-finding processes, (2) barriers between primary care and secondary care which impact on case-finding outcomes and (3) perceptions of rationale, aims and impacts of case-finding. The study shows that there were variations in how well hospitals recorded and reported outcomes to GPs. Barriers between primary care and secondary care, including GPs’ lack of access to hospital investigations and lack of clarity about roles and responsibilities, impacted case-finding outcomes. Staff in secondary care were more positive about the initiative than primary care staff, and there were conflicting priorities for primary care and secondary care regarding case-finding. Conclusions The study suggests a more evidence-based approach was needed to justify approaches to dementia case-finding. Information communicated to primary care from hospitals needs to be comprehensive, appropriate and consistent before GPs can effectively plan further investigation, treatment or care. Follow-up in primary care further requires access to options for postdiagnostic support. There is a need to evaluate the outcomes for patients and the economic impact on health and care services across settings.
    Keywords: Open access, Neurology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-10-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cosco, Theodore D -- Brayne, Carol -- Stephan, Blossom C M -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 2;514(7520):35. doi: 10.1038/514035e.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Cambridge, UK. ; Newcastle University, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25279909" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*drug effects/*physiology ; Animals ; Biomedical Research/*trends ; Geriatrics/*trends ; Humans ; Longevity/*drug effects ; Preventive Medicine/*trends ; Rejuvenation/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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