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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; LUNG ; VIVO ; DENSITY ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; HEART ; MICE ; MOUSE ; MUTANT ; NO ; genetics ; WILD-TYPE ; arteries ; LOCALIZATION ; TRACT ; ARTERY ; BODY ; FAILURE ; RECEPTORS ; VESSELS ; SMOOTH-MUSCLE ; LACKING ; HYPOXIA ; signaling ; PULMONARY ; BODIES ; TARGETED DISRUPTION ; hypertension,pulmonary ; CYCLASE ; catheterization ; heart failure ; HEART-FAILURE ; HUMAN LUNG ; NEUROENDOCRINE ; PACAP ; VASOACTIVE-INTESTINAL-PEPTIDE ; VIP
    Abstract: Background - Pituitary adenylate cyclase - activating polypeptide (PACAP), acting via 3 different G protein - coupled receptors, has been implicated in the regulation of several homeostatic systems in the body, including cardiopulmonary control. To define the physiologic role of the PACAP-preferring type I receptor, PAC1, in cardiopulmonary function, we developed a mutant mouse strain lacking functional PAC1 receptors. Methods and Results - When PAC1-deficient mice were crossed onto a C57BL/6 background, almost all mutants died during the second postnatal week. Whereas mutant mice were indistinguishable from their wild-type littermates at birth, they showed progressive weakness and died from rapidly developing heart failure. Right ventricles of PAC1 mutants were massively dilated and showed cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, whereas left ventricular structure was unaltered. On direct cardiac catheterization, right ventricular pressure was elevated by 45% in PAC1-deficient mice, indicating increased pulmonary artery pressure, as no malformations were detected in the valves or outflow tract of the right ventricle. Consistent with elevated pulmonary pressure, lung capillary density was decreased by 30% and small pulmonary arteries of mutant mice had significant vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy compared with wild-type mice. Conclusions - Whereas PACAP induces vasodilation in isolated pulmonary vessels in wild-type mice, the absence of its specific receptor PAC1 causes pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure after birth. These in vivo findings demonstrate the crucial importance of PAC1-mediated signaling for the maintenance of normal pulmonary vascular tone during early postnatal life
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15520307
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Fluids 6 (1994), S. 2711-2715 
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The von Kármán vortex street behind a circular cylinder in a laminar homogeneous jet core is experimentally investigated. The Strouhal–Reynolds number relationships are measured for various shear-layer thicknesses and aspect ratios. The experimental Strouhal number values are found to collapse with the discrete vortex shedding modes, which were observed for boundary-layer end conditions. The results indicate that the shedding modes are independent from the end conditions, but are an intrinsic feature of the shedding process of an infinitely long cylinder. The experimentally assumed shedding mode, however, is strongly dependent of the geometric parameters, like the shear-layer thickness and the aspect ratio. The observed tendencies can be made physically plausible.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Fluids 8 (1996), S. 2117-2124 
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The wake of a circular cylinder is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 160 and 500 by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). For the first time cross-stream velocity fields are determined for two classes of secondary vortices (A-mode and B-mode). The circulation of the A-mode secondary vortices in this plane is approximately twice the circulation of the B-mode secondary vortices. The spanwise wavelength of the secondary vortices is four to five cylinder diameters for the A-mode and one diameter for the B-mode. The spatio-temporal development of the wake is analyzed by acquiring a time sequence of PIV images covering several Kármán periods. On the basis of the vorticity field, the A- and B-modes can be identified as topologically different vortex structures. Two vortex models are developed to explain the differences between these modes. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 70 (1991), S. 758-771 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Viewing the brittle-to-ductile transition of fracture in intrinsically brittle solids as a crack tip initiated critical event of either nucleation of dislocation loops from the crack tip or the motion away of such dislocations from the crack tip, experiments have been devised to measure the critical activation energy of such events by measuring the arrest temperature of cleavage cracks with different velocities in experiments that were conducted on large Si single crystals subjected to a steep temperature gradient. While such experiments can provide precise information that can be related directly to mechanisms of crack tip bifurcation behavior, they are hampered by nontrivial perturbations that must be controlled. Here in the first of a series of communications we discuss the nature of these perturbations in Si single crystals, cleaving either on the {111} or the {110} planes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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