Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Abstract : We have studied neurotoxicity induced by pharmacological concentrations of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), an endogenous toxin implicated in certain neurodegenerative diseases, in cerebellar granule cells, PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, and GT1-7 hypothalamic neurosecretory cells. In all three cell types, the toxicity was induced in a dose-dependent manner by 3-HK at high micromolar concentrations and had features characteristic of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation and internucleosomal DNA cleavage. In cerebellar granule cells, the 3-HK neurotoxicity was unaffected by xanthine oxidase inhibitors but markedly potentiated by superoxide dismutase and its hemelike mimetic, MnTBAP [manganese(III) tetrakis(benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride]. Catalase blocked 3-HK neurotoxicity in the absence and presence of superoxide dismutase or MnTBAP. The formation of H2O2 was demonstrated in PC12 and GT1-7 cells treated with 3-HK, by measuring the increase in the fluorescent product, 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein. In both PC12 and cerebellar granule cells, inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporter that mediates the uptake of 3-HK failed to block 3-HK toxicity. However, their toxicity was slightly potentiated by the iron chelator, deferoxamine. Taken together, our results suggest that neurotoxicity induced by pharmacological concentrations of 3-HK in these cell types is mediated primarily by H2O2, which is formed most likely by auto-oxidation of 3-HK in extracellular compartments. 3-HK-induced death of PC12 and GT1-7 cells was protected by dantrolene, an inhibitor of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. The protection by dantrolene was associated with a marked increase in the protein level of Bcl-2, a prominent antiapoptotic gene product. Moreover, overexpression of Bcl-2 in GT1-7 cells elicited by gene transfection suppressed 3-HK toxicity. Thus, dantrolene may elicit its neuroprotective effects by mechanisms involving up-regulation of the level and function of Bcl-2 protein.
Type of Medium: