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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; radiotherapy ; carcinoma ; human ; neoplasms ; DIAGNOSIS ; RISK ; PATIENT ; kidney ; RISK-FACTORS ; CARCINOGENESIS ; colon ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; LYMPHOMA ; AGE ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; risk factors ; CERVICAL-CANCER ; RATES ; cancer risk ; REGISTRATION ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; adenocarcinoma ; TOBACCO ; pancreatic cancer ; LONG-TERM SURVIVORS ; YOUNG ; REGISTRY ; REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS ; ASSOCIATIONS ; ENDOMETRIAL ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; cancer registries ; TESTICULAR CANCER ; LYMPHOMAS ; cancer registry ; pooled analysis ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCERS ; REGISTRIES ; CANCER-DIAGNOSIS ; pancreatic neoplasms ; MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS ; neoplasms,second primary
    Abstract: Studies of pancreatic cancer in the setting of second primary malignant neoplasms can provide etiologic clues. An international multicenter study was carried out using data from 13 cancer registries with a registration period up to year 2000. Cancer patients were followed up from the initial cancer diagnosis, and the occurrence of second primary malignant neoplasms was compared with expected values derived from local rates, adjusting for age, sex, and period of diagnosis. Results from individual registries were pooled by use of a fixed-effects model. People were at higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer within 10 years of a diagnosis of cancers of the pharynx, stomach, gallbladder, larynx, lung, cervix, corpus uteri, bladder, and eye and 10 years or later following a diagnosis of cancers of the stomach, colon, gallbladder, breast, cervix, placenta, corpus uteri, ovary, testis, bladder, kidney, and eye, as well as Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Pancreatic cancer was connected with smoking-related cancers, confirming the etiologic role of tobacco. The associations with uterine and ovarian cancers suggest that reproductive factors might be implicated in pancreatic carcinogenesis. The elevated pancreatic cancer risk in young patients observed among several types of cancer implies a role of genetic factors. Radiotherapy is also suggested as a risk factor
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16421239
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; neoplasms ; DIAGNOSIS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; incidence ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; SITE ; PATIENT ; prognosis ; RISK-FACTORS ; treatment ; LINKAGE ; DESIGN ; NUMBER ; AGE ; risk factors ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; CANCER PATIENTS ; TRENDS ; REGISTRY ; cancer registries ; PRIMARY TUMORS ; SWITZERLAND ; INTERVAL ; PRIMARY NEOPLASMS ; second primary cancers ; cancer registry ; pooled analysis ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCERS ; REGISTRIES ; population-based ; PRIMARY MALIGNANCIES ; second primary cancer
    Abstract: Context: Increasing incidence and improved prognosis of thyroid cancer have led to concern about the development of second primary cancers, especially after radioiodine treatment. Thyroid cancer can also arise as a second primary neoplasm after other cancers. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the risk of second primary cancer after thyroid cancer and vice versa. Design: This was a multinational record linkage study. Setting: The study was conducted at 13 population-based cancer registries in Europe, Canada, Australia, and Singapore. Patients or Other Participants: A cohort of 39,002 people (356,035 person-yr of follow-up) with primary thyroid cancer were followed up for SPN for up to 25 yr, and 1,990 cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed after another primary cancer. Main Outcome Measures: To assess any possible excess of second primary neoplasms after thyroid cancer, the observed numbers of neoplasms were compared with expected numbers derived from age-, the cancer registries, yielding standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). The SIR of second primary thyroid cancer after various types of cancer was also calculated. Results: During the observation period, there were 2821 second primary cancers (all sites combined) after initial diagnosis of thyroid cancer, SIR of 1.31 ( 95% confidence interval 1.26 - 1.36) with significantly elevated risks for many specific cancers. Significantly elevated risks of second primary thyroid cancer were also seen after many types of cancer. Conclusion: Pooled data from 13 cancer registries show a 30% increased risk of second primary cancer after thyroid cancer and increased risks of thyroid cancer after various primary cancers. Although bias (detection, surveillance, misclassification) and chance may contribute to some of these observations, it seems likely that shared risk factors and treatment effects are implicated in many. When following up patients who have been treated for primary thyroid cancer, clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for second primary cancers
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16478820
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; CELL ; LUNG ; PROSTATE ; COHORT ; EXPOSURE ; incidence ; liver ; RISK ; PATIENT ; kidney ; primary ; SKIN ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; LYMPHOMA ; DIFFERENCE ; DECREASE ; NUMBER ; AGE ; COUNTRIES ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; RATES ; skin cancer ; MELANOMA ; SWEDEN ; COLON-CANCER ; STOMACH ; SIR ; UNITED-STATES ; AUSTRALIA ; second cancer ; SKIN-CANCER ; basal cell carcinoma ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; CELL CARCINOMA ; ONCOLOGY ; REGISTRY ; pancreas ; cancer registries ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; methods ; cancer registry ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; female ; CANCERS ; REGISTRIES ; E ; colorectal ; BASAL-CELL CARCINOMA ; second primary cancer ; SUN EXPOSURE ; vitamin D ; VITAMIN-D ; ULTRAVIOLET-RADIATION ; SUBSEQUENT RISK ; D METABOLITES
    Abstract: Background: Skin cancers are known to be associated with sun exposure, whereas sunlight through the production of vitamin D may protect against some cancers. The aim of this study was to assess whether patients with skin cancer have an altered risk of developing other cancers. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 416,134 cases of skin cancer and 3,776,501 cases of non-skin cancer as a first cancer extracted from 13 cancer registries. 10,886 melanoma and 35,620 non-melanoma skin cancer cases had second cancers. The observed numbers (0) of 46 types of second primary cancer after skin melanoma, basal cell carcinoma or non-basal cell carcinoma, and of skin cancers following non-skin cancers were compared to the expected numbers (E) derived from the age, sex and calendar period specific cancer incidence rates in each of the cancer registries (O/E = SIR, standardised incidence ratios). Rates from cancer registries classified to sunny countries (Australia, Singapore and Spain) and less sunny countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Scotland, Slovenia and Sweden) were compared to each other. Results: SIR of all second solid primary cancers (except skin and lip) after skin melanoma were significantly lower for the sunny countries (SIR(S) = 1.03; 95% CI 0.99-1.08) than in the less sunny countries (SIR(L) = 1.14; 95%CI 1.11-1.17). The difference was more obvious after non-melanoma skin cancers: after basal cell carcinoma SIR(S)/SIR(L) = 0.65 (9S%CI = 0.58-0.72); after non-basal cell carcinoma SIR(S)/SIR(L) = 0.58 (95%CI = 0.50-0.67). In sunny countries, the risk of second primary cancer after non-melanoma skin cancers was lower for most of the cancers except for lip, mouth and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusions: Vitamin D production in the skin seems to decrease the risk of several solid cancers (especially stomach, colorectal, liver and gallbladder, pancreas, lung, female breast, prostate, bladder and kidney cancers). The apparently protective effect of sun exposure against second primary cancer is more pronounced after non-melanoma skin cancers than melanoma, which is consistent with earlier reports that non-melanoma skin cancers reflect cumulative sun exposure, whereas melanoma is more related to sunburn. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17540555
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; DIAGNOSIS ; FOLLOW-UP ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; incidence ; POPULATION ; RISK ; SITE ; SITES ; PATIENT ; primary ; PATTERNS ; NUMBER ; AGE ; smoking ; RATES ; cancer risk ; REGION ; FRANCE ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; HEAD ; ALCOHOL ; PREVALENCE ; TOBACCO SMOKING ; second cancer ; MULTICENTER ; NECK-CANCER ; ONCOLOGY ; REGISTRY ; RE ; PATTERN ; head and neck cancer ; cancer registries ; SURVIVORS ; analysis ; MALIGNANT-TUMORS ; cancer registry ; pooled analysis ; USA ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; CANCERS ; population-based ; CANCER-RISK ; NOV ; ORAL-CAVITY ; ALCOHOL-DRINKING ; EXCESS ; POOLED-ANALYSIS ; second primary ; YOUNG-PATIENTS
    Abstract: The objective of the study was to assess the risk of second primary cancers (SPCs) following a primary head and neck cancer (oral cavity, pharynx and larynx) and the risk of head and neck cancer as a PC. The present investigation is a multicenter study from 13 population-based cancer registries. The study population involved 99,257 patients with a first primary head and neck cancer and contributed 489,855 person-years of follow-up. To assess the excess risk of SPCs following head and neck cancers, we calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) by dividing the observed numbers of SPCs by the expected number of cancers calculated from accumulated person-years and the age, sex- and calendar period-specific first primary cancer incidence rates in each of the cancer registries. During the observation period, there were 10,826 cases of SPCs after head and neck cancer. For all cancer sites combined, the SIR of SPCs was 1.86 (95% CI = 1.83-1.90) and the 20-year cumulative risk was 36%. Lung cancer contributed to the highest proportion of the SPCs with a 20-year cumulative risk of 13%. Excess second head and neck cancer risk was observed 10 years after diagnosis with lymphohaematopoietic cancers. The most common SPC following a first primary head and neck cancer was lung cancer. However, the highest excess of SPCs was in the head and neck region. These patterns were consistent with the notion that the pattern of cancer in survivors of head and neck cancer is dominated by the effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18729183
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  • 5
    Keywords: MUTATIONS ; SURVEILLANCE ; CARRIERS ; PREDICTION ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; DISEASE RISK ; ADENOMATOUS POLYPS ; TYPE-2 DIABETES RISK
    Abstract: Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a substantial heritable component. Common genetic variation has been shown to contribute to CRC risk. A study was conducted in a large multi-population study to assess the feasibility of CRC risk prediction using common genetic variant data combined with other risk factors. A risk prediction model was built and applied to the Scottish population using available data. Design Nine populations of European descent were studied to develop and validate CRC risk prediction models. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the combined effect of age, gender, family history (FH) and genotypes at 10 susceptibility loci that individually only modestly influence CRC risk. Risk models were generated from case-control data incorporating genotypes alone (n=39 266) and in combination with gender, age and FH (n=11 324). Model discriminatory performance was assessed using 10-fold internal cross-validation and externally using 4187 independent samples. The 10-year absolute risk was estimated by modelling genotype and FH with age- and gender-specific population risks. Results The median number of risk alleles was greater in cases than controls (10 vs 9, p〈2.2x10(-16)), confirmed in external validation sets (Sweden p=1.2x10(-6), Finland p-2x10(-5)). The mean per-allele increase in risk was 9% (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13). Discriminative performance was poor across the risk spectrum (area under curve for genotypes alone 0.57; area under curve for genotype/age/gender/FH 0.59). However, modelling genotype data, FH, age and gender with Scottish population data shows the practicalities of identifying a subgroup with 〉5% predicted 10-year absolute risk. Conclusion Genotype data provide additional information that complements age, gender and FH as risk factors, but individualised genetic risk prediction is not currently feasible. Nonetheless, the modelling exercise suggests public health potential since it is possible to stratify the population into CRC risk categories, thereby informing targeted prevention and surveillance.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22490517
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; neoplasms ; SYSTEM ; RISK ; RISKS ; SITE ; SITES ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; tumour ; SKIN ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; MALIGNANCIES ; AGE ; BRCA1 ; MUTATION ; MEN ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; SWEDEN ; MUTATIONS ; MALIGNANCY ; RE ; BRCA2 ; male breast cancer ; cancer registries ; INTERVAL ; PRIMARY NEOPLASMS ; BRCA in men ; cancer registry ; discordant sites ; pooled analysis ; subsequent malignancy
    Abstract: An international multicentre study of first and second primary neoplasms associated with male breast cancer was carried out by pooling data from 13 cancer registries. Among a total of 3409 men with primary breast cancer, 426 (12.5%) developed a second neoplasia; other than breast cancer, a 34% overall excess risk of second primary neoplasia, affecting the small intestine ( standardised incidence ratio, 4.95, 95% confidence interval, 1.35 - 12.7), rectum (1.78, 1.20 - 2.54), pancreas ( 1.93, 1.14 - 3.05), skin (nonmelanoma, 1.65, 1.16 - 2.29), prostate (1.61, 1.34 - 1.93) and lymphohaematopoietic system ( 1.63, 1.12 - 2.29). A total of 225 male breast cancers was recorded after cancers other than breast cancer, but an increase was found only after lymphohaematopoietic neoplasms. BRCA2 ( and to some extent BRCA1) mutations may explain the findings for pancreatic and prostate cancers. Increases at other sites may be related to unknown factors or to chance. This large study shows that the risks for second discordant tumours after male breast cancer pose only a moderate excess risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15798766
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; neoplasms ; DIAGNOSIS ; FOLLOW-UP ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; TIME ; PATIENT ; treatment ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; MALIGNANCIES ; AGE ; BRCA1 ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; colorectal cancer ; smoking ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; chemotherapy ; leukemia ; BLADDER-CANCER ; MUTATIONS ; paclitaxel ; MALIGNANCY ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; FAMILIES ; INCREASE ; leukaemia ; female ; CANCERS ; RARE ; colorectal ; INCREASES ; multi-centre cohort study ; second primary cancer ; primary fallopian tube cancer ; PRIMARY-CARCINOMA
    Abstract: Primary fallopian tube cancer (PFTC) is a rare disease, and its aetiological factors are poorly understood. Studies on PFTC in the setting of 2nd primary malignant neoplasms can provide clues on aetiology and also define the possible side effects of different treatment modalities for PFTC. A cohort of 2,084 cases with first PFTC was extracted from the data from 13 cancer registries from Europe, Canada, Australia and Singapore and followed for second primary cancers within the period 1943-2000. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated and Poisson regression analyses were done to find out the RRs related to age at, period or and time since the PFTC diagnosis. There were 118 cancer cases observed after first PFTC (SIR 1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.6). Elevated SIRs were seen for colorectal cancer (1.7, 95%CI 1.0-2.6), for breast cancer (1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.2), for bladder cancer (2.8, 95%CI 1.0-6.0), for lung cancer (1.8, 95% CI 0.9-3.2) and for nonlymphoid leukaemia (3.7, 95%CI 1.0-9.4). Significant risk increases were detected for colorectal cancer during the 2nd to 5th year after the first PFTC diagnosis, for breast cancer in follow-up 10+ and for nonlymphoid leukaemia during the 2nd to 10th year. The clustering of cancers of the lung and bladder in PFTC patients may suggest shared smoking aetiology. The excess of colorectal and breast cancers after PFTC may indicate a genetic aetiology. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17266029
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; evaluation ; Germany ; PROSTATE ; FOLLOW-UP ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; SITE ; SITES ; PATIENT ; prognosis ; REDUCTION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; early detection ; prevention ; CARE ; DIFFERENCE ; colorectal cancer ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; COUNTRIES ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; LONG-TERM SURVIVAL ; TRENDS ; EUROPE ; MANAGEMENT ; RENAL-CELL CARCINOMA ; RECTAL-CANCER ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; monitoring ; PATIENT SURVIVAL ; PERIOD ANALYSIS ; analysis ; methods ; technique ; cancer registry ; CANCERS ; population-based ; ENGLAND ; IMPROVEMENT ; UP-TO-DATE ; EARLY BREAST-CANCER ; neoplasm ; INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES ; model-based period analysis ; SURGICAL TRAINING-PROGRAM
    Abstract: Background: Monitoring population-based cancer survival is an essential component in the evaluation of cancer control, but subject to an inherent delay in the reporting of the most recent survival estimates with traditional techniques of analysis. Methods: We examined survival trends between the years 2000 and 2004 for 20 common cancers based on follow-up data from 12 cancer registries from diverse areas of Europe using model-based period analysis techniques. Results: Between 2000 and 2004, marked rises were seen in 5-year relative survival amongst patients with prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, which were statistically significant in 10, 8 and 7 of the 12 participating cancer registries, respectively. For cancer sites amenable to effective early detection and treatment, major geographical differences in patient prognosis still persisted, with a lower survival generally observed in Eastern European countries. Conclusion: Model-based period analysis enables the timely monitoring of recent trends in population -based cancer survival. For colorectal and breast cancers, the identified rises in survival are probably (at least partly) explained by the improvements in clinical care and the management of the disease. Nevertheless, persisting geographic differences do point to the potential for a further reduction in the burden of cancer throughout Europe, towards which improvements in diverse areas of care, including secondary prevention, access to advances in treatment as well as subspecialisation and regionalisation of oncologic care may all contribute. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18455387
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; CELL ; LUNG ; PROSTATE ; DIAGNOSIS ; FOLLOW-UP ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; DEATH ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; incidence ; RISK ; FAMILY ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; MALIGNANCIES ; PATTERNS ; AGE ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; MEN ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; adenocarcinoma ; EUROPE ; ONCOLOGY ; small cell lung carcinoma ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; METAANALYSIS ; development ; HORMONES ; CANCERS ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; sex differences ; SPCs
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patterns of second primary cancers (SPCs) following first primary lung cancers (FPLCs) may provide aetiological insights into FPLC. METHODS: Cases of FPLCs in 13 cancer registries in Europe, Australia, Canada, and Singapore were followed up from the date of FPLC diagnosis to the date of SPC diagnosis, date of death, or end of follow-up. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to estimate the magnitude of SPC development following squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), and adenocarcinoma (ADC). RESULTS: Among SCC patients, male SIR = 1.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-1.66) and female SIR = 2.31 (1.94-2.72) for smoking-related SPC. Among SCLC patients, the respective ratios were 1.39 (1.20-1.60) and 2.28 (1.73-2.95), and among ADC patients, they were 1.73 (1.57-1.90) and 2.24 (1.91-2.61). We also observed associations between first primary lung ADC and second primary breast cancer in women (SIR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.48) and prostate cancer (1.56, 1.39-1.79) in men. CONCLUSION: The FPLC patients carried excess risks of smoking-related SPCs. An association between first primary lung ADC and second primary breast and ovarian cancer in women at younger age and prostate cancers in men may reflect an aetiological role of hormones in lung ADC. British Journal of Cancer (2010) 102, 1190-1195. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605616 www.bjcancer.com (C) 2010 Cancer Research UK
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20354532
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  • 10
    Keywords: neoplasms ; FOLLOW-UP ; RISK ; UNITED-STATES ; CHILDREN ; SURVIVORS ; EWINGS-SARCOMA ; soft-tissue sarcoma ; WILMS-TUMOR ; childhood solid cancer ; INTERNATIONAL-CLASSIFICATION ; second malignant neoplasm
    Abstract: Children diagnosed with noncentral nervous system solid cancers (NCNSSC) experience several adverse late effects, including second malignant neoplasm. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of specific second malignancies after a childhood NCNSSC. Diagnosis and follow-up data on 10,988 cases of NCNSSC in children (0-14 years) were obtained from 13 registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and cumulative incidence of second malignancies were computed. We observed 175 second malignant neoplasms, yielding a SIR of 4.6, 95% CI: 3.9-5.3. When considering second cancers with at least 10 occurrences, highest relative risks were found for second malignant bone tumors (SIR = 26.4, 16.6-40.0), soft tissue sarcomas (SIR = 14.1, 6.7-25.8) and myeloid leukemia (SIR = 12.7, 6.3-22.8). Significant increased risks for all malignancies combined were observed after sympathetic nervous system tumors (SIR = 11.4, 5.2-21.6), retinoblastomas (SIR = 7.3, 5.4-9.8), renal tumors (SIR = 5.7, 3.8-8.0), malignant bone tumors (SIR = 5.6, 3.7-8.2), soft tissue sarcomas (SIR = 4.7, 3.2-6.8), germ-cell, trophoblastic and other gonadal neoplasms (SIR = 2.5, 1.1-4.9), carcinomas and other malignant epithelial neoplasms (SIR = 2.2, 1.4-3.3). The highest risk of a second malignancy of any type occurred 5 to 9 years after NCNSSC (SIR = 9.9, 6.8-13.9). The cumulative incidence of second malignancies 10 years after the first neoplasm was eight times higher among NCNSSC survivors than in the general population, with the absolute difference between observed and expected cumulative incidence still increasing after 50 years of follow-up. Children who survived a NCNSSC experience a large increased risk of developing a new malignancy, even many years after their initial diagnosis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21520035
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