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  • 1
    Keywords: brain ; SURVIVAL ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; brain neoplasms ; GLIOMAS ; BRAIN-TUMORS ; GLIOMA ; METAANALYSIS ; telephone ; cellular phone ; SELECTION BIAS ; INTERPHONE ; PHONE USE ; WIRE CODES
    Abstract: The energy absorbed from the radio-frequency fields of mobile telephones depends strongly on distance from the source. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate whether gliomas occur preferentially in the areas of the brain having the highest radio-frequency exposure. The authors used 2 approaches: In a case-case analysis, tumor locations were compared with varying exposure levels; in a case-specular analysis, a hypothetical reference location was assigned for each glioma, and the distances from the actual and specular locations to the handset were compared. The study included 888 gliomas from 7 European countries (2000-2004), with tumor midpoints defined on a 3-dimensional grid based on radiologic images. The case-case analyses were carried out using unconditional logistic regression, whereas in the case-specular analysis, conditional logistic regression was used. In the case-case analyses, tumors were located closest to the source of exposure among never-regular and contralateral users, but not statistically significantly. In the case-specular analysis, the mean distances between exposure source and location were similar for cases and speculars. These results do not suggest that gliomas in mobile phone users are preferentially located in the parts of the brain with the highest radio-frequency fields from mobile phones
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21610117
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Sturge-Weber syndrome ; Venous hypertension ; Cerebral infarction ; Status epilepticus ; Dementia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a neurocutaneous disorder that is typically associated with progressive neurological deterioration. We describe a 12-year-old girl with SWS who suffered a permanent cerebral insult as the result of a period of protracted status epilepticus. The case illustrates the unique susceptibility of patients with SWS to uncontrolled venous hypertension and emphasises the need for optimal seizure control and preservation of venous outflow. We discuss the relevance of our observations to haemodynamic concepts of neurological decline in SWS.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Cerebellitis ; Hydrocephalus ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 14-year-old boy presented acutely with occipital headache, nausea and vomiting. MRI showed obstructive hydrocephalus and marked bilateral cerebellar swelling with increased signal on T2-weighted imaging. Following treatment with oral corticosteroids, the clinical and radiological signs resolved. The clinical course and radiological appearances were consistent with cerebellitis associated with a significant mass effect and hydrocephalus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Reliable diagnostic criteria for atopic eczema (AE) are essential in order to make international comparisons and to identify possible disease risk factors. Little is known about the prevalence of atopic eczema and validity of diagnostic criteria for AE in developing countries where English is not the first language.Objectives  We sought to determine the prevalence of AE in an area of urban and rural Ethiopia, and to compare the predictive values of different questionnaire and examination methods for diagnosing AE in this population.Methods  We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 7915 children aged 1–5 years living in and around the town of Jimma in southwest Ethiopia. AE prevalence was assessed in two ways: (i) by using the International Study for Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, and (ii) using the U.K. refinement of Hanifin and Rajka's diagnostic criteria. All possible cases identified by screening questions and random samples of controls were then examined by an experienced local paediatrician, who acted as a reference standard to determine the predictive value of the criteria used to diagnose AE.Results  The overall 1-year period prevalence of AE according to ISAAC and U.K. criteria was 4·4%[95% confidence interval (CI) 3·95–4·85] and 1·8% (95% CI 1·5–2·1), respectively. Corresponding point prevalence estimates (symptoms in the last week) were 1·8% for ISAAC and 1·3% for the U.K. criteria. The positive predictive values of the ISAAC and U.K. criteria questions for AE symptoms still reported to be present (in the last week) at the doctor's examination were 48·8% and 55·5%, respectively. Corresponding negative predictive values were 90·5% and 90·1%, respectively. The sign of visible flexural dermatitis (a component of the U.K. criteria) when used alone had positive and negative predictive values of 57% and 91%, respectively.Conclusions  Neither the ISAAC nor U.K. criteria performed especially well in predicting cases of AE in this survey. Possible reasons include problems with questionnaire translation, cultural conceptions of terminology, asking parents rather than the child about symptoms, the transient nature of AE signs, and differences in what a doctor perceives to constitute a typical case of AE. The results do not preclude the use of standardized diagnostic criteria alongside a doctor's examination in future surveys of Ethiopian children, and knowledge of the criteria's limited predictive value should help to interpret study findings that have employed such criteria. Consideration should be given to adopting the sign of visible flexural dermatitis as a standard for estimating the point prevalence of AE throughout the world because it is less susceptible to problems with translation and interpretation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Risk assessment ; Biocontrol inoculant ; Pseudomonas ; 2 ; 4-Diacetylphloroglucinol ; Electro-ultrafiltration analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  The biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens F113, which produces the antimicrobial compound 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and inhibits soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi, might also affect non-target resident microorganisms involved in the cycling of soil nutrients. Analyses of soil nutrients and crop foliage were used to assess possible residual effects of the pseudomonad on soil fertility. The Bandon field site was sown in 1994 with sugarbeet seeds that were either untreated, inoculated with the spontaneous rifampicin-resistant mutant F113Rif, or treated with chemical fungicides. The field was cropped with uninoculated red clover in 1995. The inoculant was recovered at only 2.0 log CFU/root system at the first harvest of clovers, and the F113Rif treatment influenced 5 of 17 levels of readily available nutrients determined by electro-ultrafiltration (EUF) analysis of soil. However, this effect was essentially negligible since it was (1) small in magnitude and of little agronomic significance when compared with reference EUF levels, (2) similar in part to those of the commercial seed treatment and other farming practices followed at Bandon, and (3) not statistically significant when data were analysed at the plot level rather than using results from individual soil samples within plots. Clover leaf composition was investigated at two harvests. The F113Rif treatment had no effect on the 20 foliage parameters studied except a small (15%) transient decrease in foliage chlorine at the first harvest. EUF soil analysis and foliage analysis will be useful in future risk assessment studies of genetically modified derivatives of F113.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Entanglement is a necessary resource for quantum applications—entanglement established between quantum systems at different locations enables private communication and quantum teleportation, and facilitates quantum information processing. Distributed entanglement is established by ...
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Quantum teleportation provides a means to transport quantum information efficiently from one location to another, without the physical transfer of the associated quantum-information carrier. This is achieved by using the non-local correlations of previously distributed, entangled quantum bits ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: 99mTc-MDP ; Osteoporosis ; Calcium ; Vitamin D
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Serum calcium, albumin, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase, urinary creatinine and retention of 99mTc-methylene bisphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) were measured in 61 subjects with osteoporosis and the values compared with those obtained in normal subjects. 99mTc-MDP retention was inversely related with urinary creatinine output in normal subjects. In osteoporotic subjects urinary creatinine output was lower and 99mTc-MDP retention higher even when urinary creatinine output was taken into account. Other measurements were similar. In 21 subjects these measurements together with urinary hydroxyproline were performed before and after treatment with calcium and vitamin D. 99mTc-MDP and alkaline phosphatase fell; urinary hydroxyproline was unchanged. A single 24 h urine measurement after 99mTc-MDP injection is a valuable method of predicting whether calcium and vitamin D therapy will be useful in a particular case of osteoporosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 382 (1996), S. 572-572 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR - Ashby uses the tobacco industry's campaign on passive smoking as an example of an attempt at educating the public. But this example ironically reinforces the rest of his argument on the ease of creating confusion by the misleading use of scientifically valid statistics. By focusing on the ...
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