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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 74 (1999), S. 682-684 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The crystallographic texture of electroplated Cu in damascene trenches has been examined by x-ray diffraction pole figure analysis. The influence of two post-plating treatments on the resulting orientation of (111) planes of the Cu inside the trenches are compared. When the as-deposited small-grained Cu is allowed to recrystallize at room temperature before chemical mechanical polishing of the overlying Cu, we observe only a (111) fiber texture of the Cu inside the trenches. In contrast, when the overlying material is polished away before recrystallization of the small-grained Cu, pole figures show evidence of sidewall texture of the (111) planes in addition to the (111) fiber texture in the as-deposited as well as the annealed state. The presence or absence of a sidewall texture component in the pole figures offers insight into the evolution of the microstructure of damascene Cu. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 62 (1940), S. 2808-2810 
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 78 (1995), S. 2423-2430 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have measured the stress in Mo/Si multilayer films deposited by magnetron sputtering, using the wafer-curvature technique, and find a strong dependence on background pressure. We find that for multilayers containing 40 bilayers of ∼4.3 nm Si layers and ∼2.6 nm Mo layers, the stress increases from approximately −280 MPa (compressive) to −450 MPa as the background pressure in the deposition chamber (i.e., measured just prior to deposition) decreases from 1.0×10−5 to 6.0×10−8 Torr. For multilayers of the same period but with thicker Mo layers, the dependence on background pressure is even stronger. X-ray (λ=0.154 nm) diffraction measurements reveal only a slight increase in interfacial roughness for films deposited at high background pressure, but no evidence was found for any differences in the microstructure of the polycrystalline Mo layers that comprise these structures. The peak soft x-ray (λ=13 nm) reflectance, which is sensitive to interfacial roughness at longer spatial wavelengths, also shows no correlation with background pressure or stress. Atomic concentrations of incorporated oxygen and carbon, measured with Auger electron spectroscopy, were found to be less than ∼0.5 at. % for all samples. However, the average hydrogen concentration, as determined from forward-recoil-scattering measurements made using a 2.6 MeV He beam, was found to increase linearly with background pressure. We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed dependence of film stress on background pressure, including gas incorporation and the affect of residual gas atoms on adatom mobility. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 66 (1989), S. 1403-1410 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Pd features have been fabricated by high-energy ion irradiation (2-MeV He+, 2-MeV Ne+, and 20-keV Ga+ ions) of thin palladium acetate films. 2-MeV He+ irradiation produces smooth metallic-looking features that contain up to 30% of the original carbon and 5% of the original oxygen content of the film. Films irradiated with 2-MeV Ne+ ions contain slightly lower amounts of carbon and oxygen residues, but the films' appearance varied with thickness. Exposures made with a 20-keV Ga+ ion beam, focused to a 0.2-μm spot, produce features with carbon and oxygen contents higher than those found with He+ and Ne+ exposures. Heating the ion-beam-defined palladium features in a hydrogen ambient reduces the carbon and oxygen contents and improves the electrical conductivity. Decomposition mechanisms and comparisons with laser direct writing are discussed.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 23 (1983), S. 931-934 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Thin polymer films were irradiated in a high vacuum environment with energetic (∼2 MeV) ions. The emitted molecular species were studied with a quadrupole mass spectrometer during bombardment. The emitted species are predominantly small molecules. The efficiency of emission depends strongly upon the electronic energy loss of the incident ions in the film and, hence, upon the velocity and atomic number of the incident ion. The emission efficiency of all species decreases with increasing damage in the film. By pulsing the ion beam, the time dependence of irradiation induced emission of molecular species from the films has been studied. Emission delays of hundreds of milliseconds are observed in some cases. These delays are found to depend upon the emitted species as well as the host film and seem to be associated with diffusion of the species in the films.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 36.40+d ; 33.8.Gj
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The results of a detailed study of the photodissociation of carbon cluster ions, C 3 + to C 20 + , are presented and discussed. The experiments were performed using internally cold cluster ions derived from pulsed laser evaporation of a graphite target rod in a helium buffer gas followed by supersonic expansion. The mass selected clusters were photodissociated using 248 nm and 351 nm light from an excimer laser. Photofragment branching ratios, photodissociation cross sections and data on the laser fluence dependence of photodissociation are reported. For almost all initial clusters, C n + , the dominant photodissociation pathway was observed to be loss of a C3 unit to give a C n−3 + ion. This observation is interpreted as indicating that dissociation occurs by a statistical unimolecular process rather than by direct photodissociation. The photodissociation was found to be linear with laser fluence forn〉5 with 248 nm and 351 nm light; quadratic forn=5 for 248 nm and 351 nm; and linear forn=4 at 248 nm. Dissociation energies for the carbon cluster ions implied by these results are discussed. The photodissociation cross sections were found to change dramatically with cluster size and with the wavelength of the photodissociating light.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 86 (1987), S. 3862-3869 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Mass resolved carbon cluster cations from C+3 to C+20 have been photofragmented using 248 and 351 nm light. For an initial cluster C+n , the dominant fragment observed is C+n−3 . Fluence dependence measurements of photofragmentation yield bracketed dissociation thresholds, photofragmentation cross sections, and product branching ratios. Photodissociation with 248 nm light is found to be primarily linear with laser fluence for n〉5, but there are indications that C+3 and C+5 fragment only with the absorption of two or more photons. For 351 nm light, clusters with six and more atoms all show a linear dependence. The photofragmentation cross sections for both 351 and 248 nm light show a significant change as a function of cluster size.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 66 (1995), S. 3480-3482 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) using a scanning electron microscope has proven to be a valuable means for determining the crystal orientation of crystallites as small as ∼0.25 μm. However, it is still not widely used. One deterrent is the high cost of the image intensified video camera system that is commonly used to record the weak EBSD images produced on a phosphor screen. A much less expensive detector system has been devised using a microchannel plate (MCP) electron multiplier to provide the necessary gain in image intensity and a standard video camera to record the image. Excitation of the MCP by secondary electrons and low energy backscattered electron is prevented by a thin aluminum foil on the MCP front surface. The benefits and disadvantages of this approach to EBSD are presented, together with typical EBSD images obtained from it. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary and Conclusion A study was conducted to determine the interactive effects of electroconvulsive shock with chlorpromazine and reserpine in rats. Five dose levels for each of the drugs were examined and compared with appropriate control conditions. These effects were studied with the subjects in an atmosphere of 95 per cent O2 + 5 per cent CO2 as well as under normal atmospheric conditions. The results of this experiment are presented graphically and analyzed statistically. The results of the analysis indicate the following: 1. A synergic relationship is obtained when ECS is administered in conjunction with either reserpine or chlorpromazine in rats. The dependent variable used to measure this interaction was the mortality rate for the various groups during or immediately subsequent to ECS procedures. This finding is in agreement with the results of previous studies from this laboratory. 2. A stepwise function is obtained when reserpine is paired with ECS. The first critical dosage occurs below the 0.0026 mg/gm of body weight level and the second within the 0.014 to 0.0130 mg/gm range. 3. The joint administration of chlorpromazine and ECS results in a function that is asymptotic within the 0.0026 mg/gm to 0.0130 mg/gm range. 4. When an atmosphere of 95 per cent O2 + 5 per cent CO2 is made available to an animal immediately prior to and during ECS procedures, there is a significant reduction in the probability of death.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2021
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The far infrared powder absorption spectra (10–200 cm−1) for a maximum microcline sample (obtained by ion-exchange from Amelia albite) and for a natural maximum microcline were measured at steps of 10 K on lowering and raising the temperature between 300 and 110 K. Of the absorption bands at 97.5, 113.5, 137.5, 148, and 157 cm−1 occurring at room temperature, those at 157 and eventually 148 cm−1 showed evidence of a phase transition and only that at 157 cm−1 showed hysteresis. The transition occurs at 245±5 K on lowering the temperature and the low-temperature form can be superheated to 300 K in the case of the ion-exchange sample. Oriented thin sections parallel to (001) and (010) were also measured to 110 K as a function of the direction of the electric vector E, but could not be unambiguously interpreted. Though the effect is very slight it is tentatively proposed that the phase transition (already characterized by calorimetry and lattice parameters) involves changes in K-O and T-O-T bonds.
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